S-3
Table of Contents

As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on March 9, 2023

Registration No. 333-            

 

 

 

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

Washington, D.C. 20549

 

 

FORM S-3

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

 

 

CULLINAN ONCOLOGY, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

 

 

Delaware   81-3879991
(State or other jurisdiction of
incorporation or organization)
  (I.R.S. Employer
Identification Number)

One Main Street

Suite 1350

Cambridge, MA 02142

(617) 410-4650

(Address, Including Zip Code, and Telephone Number, Including Area Code, of Registrant’s Principal Executive Offices)

 

 

Nadim Ahmed

President and Chief Executive Officer

Cullinan Oncology, Inc.

One Main Street

Suite 1350

Cambridge, MA 02142

(617) 410-4650

(Name, Address, Including Zip Code, and Telephone Number, Including Area Code, of Agent for Service)

 

 

Copy to:

Thomas J. Danielski, Esq.

Ropes & Gray LLP

Prudential Tower

800 Boylston Street

Boston, MA 02199-3600

(617) 951-7000

 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after this registration statement becomes effective.

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box.  ☐

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box.  ☒

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering.  ☐

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box.  ☐

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

 

Large accelerated filer      Accelerated filer  
Non-accelerated filer      Smaller reporting company  
     Emerging growth company  

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act.  ☐

 

 

The Registrant hereby amends this Registration Statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the Registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this Registration Statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until the Registration Statement shall become effective on such date as the Commission acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

 


Table of Contents

EXPLANATORY NOTE

This registration statement contains:

 

   

a base prospectus that covers the offering, issuance and sale by us of up to $350,000,000 in the aggregate of our securities identified above from time to time in one or more offerings; and

 

   

a sales agreement prospectus supplement that covers the offering, issuance and sale by us of up to a maximum aggregate offering price of $125,000,000 of our common stock that may be issued and sold from time to time under a sales agreement with SVB Securities LLC, or SVB Securities.

The base prospectus immediately follows this explanatory note. The sales agreement prospectus supplement immediately follows the base prospectus. The specific terms of any securities to be offered pursuant to the base prospectus other than the shares under the sales agreement will be specified in a prospectus supplement to the base prospectus. The specific terms of the securities to be issued and sold under the sales agreement are specified in the sales agreement prospectus supplement. The $125,000,000 of common stock that may be offered, issued and sold under the sales agreement prospectus supplement is included in the $350,000,000 of securities that may be offered, issued and sold by us under the base prospectus. Upon termination of the sales agreement with SVB Securities, any portion of the $125,000,000 included in the sales agreement prospectus supplement that is not sold pursuant to the sales agreement will be available for sale in other offerings pursuant to the base prospectus, and if no shares are sold under the sales agreement, the full $125,000,000 of securities may be sold in other offerings pursuant to the base prospectus and a corresponding prospectus supplement.


Table of Contents

The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and we are not soliciting offers to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED MARCH 9, 2023

$350,000,000

PROSPECTUS

Cullinan Oncology, Inc.

 

LOGO

Debt Securities

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Depositary Shares

Subscription Rights

Purchase Contracts

Units

Warrants

 

 

We may offer and sell securities from time to time in one or more offerings of up to $350,000,000 in aggregate offering price. This prospectus describes the general terms of these securities and the general manner in which these securities will be offered. We will provide the specific terms of these securities in supplements to this prospectus. The prospectus supplements will also describe the specific manner in which these securities will be offered and may also supplement, update or amend information contained in this document. You should read this prospectus and any applicable prospectus supplement before you invest.

We may offer these securities in amounts, at prices and on terms determined at the time of offering. The securities may be sold directly to you, through agents, or through underwriters and dealers. If agents, underwriters or dealers are used to sell the securities, we will name them and describe their compensation in a prospectus supplement.

Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the symbol “CGEM.”

 

 

Investing in these securities involves certain risks. See “Risk Factors” included in any accompanying prospectus supplement and in the documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus for a discussion of the factors you should carefully consider before deciding to purchase these securities.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

 

The date of this prospectus is        , 2023.


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

     1  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     2  

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

     2  

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     3  

CULLINAN ONCOLOGY, INC.

     5  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     7  

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

     8  

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

     16  

DESCRIPTION OF DEPOSITARY SHARES

     22  

DESCRIPTION OF SUBSCRIPTION RIGHTS

     25  

DESCRIPTION OF PURCHASE CONTRACTS

     26  

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

     27  

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

     28  

FORMS OF SECURITIES

     29  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     31  

LEGAL MATTERS

     34  

EXPERTS

     34  


Table of Contents

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

This prospectus is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, which we refer to as the “SEC,” utilizing a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may from time to time sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings for an aggregate initial offering price of up to $350,000,000.

This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we sell securities, we will provide one or more prospectus supplements that will contain specific information about the terms of the offering. The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should read both this prospectus and the accompanying prospectus supplement together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information”.

You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any accompanying prospectus supplement or in any related free writing prospectus filed by us with the SEC. We have not authorized anyone to provide you with different information. This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement do not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities other than the securities described in this prospectus or such accompanying prospectus supplement or an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy such securities in any circumstances in which such offer or solicitation is unlawful. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus, any prospectus supplement, the documents incorporated by reference and any related free writing prospectus is accurate only as of their respective dates. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed materially since those dates.

Unless the context otherwise indicates, references in this prospectus to the “Company,” “we,” “our” and “us” refer, collectively, to Cullinan Oncology, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and its consolidated subsidiaries.

 

-1-


Table of Contents

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. Copies of certain information filed by us with the SEC are also available on our website at http://www.cullinanoncology.com. Our website is not a part of this prospectus and is not incorporated by reference in this prospectus.

This prospectus is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. This prospectus omits some information contained in the registration statement in accordance with SEC rules and regulations. You should review the information and exhibits in the registration statement for further information about us and our consolidated subsidiaries and the securities we are offering. Statements in this prospectus concerning any document we filed as an exhibit to the registration statement or that we otherwise filed with the SEC are not intended to be comprehensive and are qualified by reference to these filings and the exhibits attached thereto. You should review the complete document to evaluate these statements.

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference much of the information we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those publicly available documents. The information that we incorporate by reference in this prospectus is considered to be part of this prospectus. Because we are incorporating by reference future filings with the SEC, this prospectus is continually updated and those future filings may modify or supersede some of the information included or incorporated in this prospectus. This means that you must look at all of the SEC filings that we incorporate by reference to determine if any of the statements in this prospectus or in any document previously incorporated by reference have been modified or superseded. This prospectus incorporates by reference the documents listed below (File No. 001-39856) and any future filings we make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act (in each case, other than those documents or the portions of those documents not deemed to be filed) between the date of the initial registration statement and the effectiveness of the registration statement and following the effectiveness of the registration statement until the offering of the securities under the registration statement is terminated or completed:

 

   

Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022, as filed with the SEC on March 9, 2023;

 

   

our Current Reports on Form 8-K as filed with the SEC on January 19, 2023 and February 14, 2023 (Item 1.01 only); and

 

   

the description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A as filed with the SEC on January  6, 2021, as the description therein has been updated and superseded by the description of our capital stock contained in Exhibit 4.3 to our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, as filed with the SEC on March 30, 2021, and including any amendments and reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.

You may request a copy of these filings, at no cost, by writing or telephoning us at the following address or telephone number:

Cullinan Oncology, Inc.

One Main Street

Suite 1350

Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142

Attn: Investor Relations

(617) 410-4650

 

-2-


Table of Contents

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus and the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus contain certain forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. These statements involve risks, uncertainties, and other factors that may cause actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from the information expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. All statements, other than statements of historical facts, contained in this prospectus, including statements regarding our strategy, future operations, future financial position, future revenue, projected costs, prospects, plans and objectives of management and expected market growth are forward-looking statements. The words “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “target,” “would” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words.

These forward-looking statements include, among other things, statements about:

 

   

the success, cost and timing of our clinical-stage product candidates, including zipalertinib (CLN-081/TAS6417), CLN-049, CLN-619, CLN-418, and CLN-978;

 

   

the initiation, timing, progress, results and cost of our research and development programs and our current and future preclinical and clinical studies, including statements regarding the timing of initiation and completion of studies or trials and related preparatory work, the period during which the results of the trials will become available, and our research and development programs;

 

   

our ability to initiate, recruit, and enroll patients in and conduct our clinical trials at the pace that we project;

 

   

our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approval of our product candidates, and any related restrictions, limitations, or warnings in the label of any of our product candidates, if approved;

 

   

our ability to compete with companies currently marketing or engaged in the development of treatments that our product candidates are designed to target;

 

   

our reliance on third parties to conduct our clinical trials and to manufacture drug substance and drug product for use in our clinical trials;

 

   

the size and growth potential of the markets for oncology diseases and any of our current product candidates or other product candidates we may identify and pursue, and our ability to serve those markets;

 

   

our ability to identify and advance through clinical development any additional product candidates;

 

   

the commercialization of our current product candidates and any other product candidates we may identify and pursue, if approved, including our ability to successfully build a specialty sales force and commercial infrastructure to market our current product candidates and any other product candidates we may identify and pursue;

 

   

our ability to identify research priorities and apply a risk-mitigated strategy to efficiently discover and develop product candidates;

 

   

our ability to retain and recruit key personnel;

 

   

our ability to obtain and maintain adequate intellectual property rights;

 

   

our expectations regarding government and third-party payor coverage and reimbursement;

 

   

our estimates of our expenses, ongoing losses, capital requirements and our needs for or ability to obtain additional financing;

 

-3-


Table of Contents
   

the milestone payments that we may receive from Taiho Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., or Taiho;

 

   

the anticipated development and commercialization of zipalertinib;

 

   

the development of commercial infrastructure;

 

   

potential investments in our pipeline and the potential for such product candidates;

 

   

our cash runway;

 

   

the potential benefits of strategic collaboration agreements, our ability to enter into additional strategic collaborations or arrangements, and our ability to attract collaborators with development, regulatory and commercialization expertise;

 

   

our financial performance;

 

   

developments and projections relating to our competitors or our industry; and

 

   

the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic, including mitigation efforts and economic effects, on any of the foregoing or other aspects of our business operations, including but not limited to our preclinical studies and future clinical trials.

You should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements because they involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors, which are, in some cases, beyond our control and which could materially affect results. Factors that may cause actual results to differ materially from current expectations include, among other things, those listed in the section of any accompanying prospectus supplement under “Risk Factors.” If one or more of these risks or uncertainties occur, or if our underlying assumptions prove to be incorrect, actual events or results may vary significantly from those implied or projected by the forward-looking statements. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment and new risks emerge from time to time. It is not possible for our management to predict all risks, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in or implied by any forward-looking statements we may make. No forward-looking statement is a guarantee of future performance.

You should read this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. You should also carefully review the risk factors, risk factor summary and cautionary statements described in the other documents we file from time to time with the SEC, specifically our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and our Current Reports on Form 8-K. We do not assume any obligation to update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law.

This prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein also contain estimates, projections and other information concerning our industry, our business and the markets for our product candidates. Information that is based on estimates, forecasts, projections, market research or similar methodologies is inherently subject to uncertainties and actual events or circumstances may differ materially from events and circumstances that are assumed in this information. Unless otherwise expressly stated, we obtained this industry, business, market and other data from our own internal estimates and research as well as from reports, research surveys, studies, and similar data prepared by market research firms and other third parties, industry, medical and general publications, government data and similar sources. While we are not aware of any misstatements regarding any third-party information presented in this prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein, their estimates, in particular, as they relate to projections, involve numerous assumptions, are subject to risks and uncertainties and are subject to change based on various factors, including those discussed under the section of any accompanying prospectus supplement titled “Risk Factors”.

 

-4-


Table of Contents

CULLINAN ONCOLOGY, INC.

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on modality-agnostic targeted oncology. Our strategy is to identify high-impact cancer targets and then select what we believe is the optimal therapeutic modality for those targets. We source innovation both internally and externally, focusing on product candidates with novel technology platforms or differentiated mechanisms. Before we advance a product candidate into clinical development, we evaluate its potential for anti-tumor activity as a single agent as well as its ability to generate an immune system response or to inhibit oncogenic processes. Using this strategy, we have built a broad and deep pipeline of targeted oncology programs that includes six distinct product candidates, of which five are clinical-stage, as well as multiple research and discovery programs.

Zipalertinib (CLN-081/TAS6417) which we are co-developing with an affiliate of Taiho, is an orally bioavailable small-molecule, irreversible epidermal growth factor receptor, or EGFR, inhibitor that is designed to selectively target cells expressing EGFR exon 20 insertion, or EGFRex20ins, mutations with relative sparing of cells expressing wild-type EGFR. The United States Food and Drug Administration, or the FDA, has granted Breakthrough Therapy designation to zipalertinib. In the fourth quarter of 2022, we initiated a pivotal study in patients with EGFR exon 20 non-small-cell lung cancer, or NSCLC, who progressed after prior systemic therapy. In June 2022, Taiho acquired our equity interest in our partially-owned subsidiary, Cullinan Pearl Corp., or Cullinan Pearl, which provided Taiho with worldwide rights to zipalertinib outside of Japan and Greater China, for an upfront payment of $275.0 million. As part of the sale, we are also eligible to receive an additional $130.0 million tied to EGFR exon 20 NSCLC regulatory milestones. Concurrently with the closing of the sale of our equity interest in Cullinan Pearl, we entered into a co-development and co-commercialization agreement for zipalertinib with an affiliate of Taiho, pursuant to which we will collaborate to develop zipalertinib and will retain the option to co-commercialize zipalertinib in the United States, or U.S. Development costs for and any future pre-tax profits from potential U.S. sales of zipalertinib shall be shared equally between us and Taiho.

In addition to zipalertinib, our portfolio includes four other clinical-stage product candidates and one product candidate that is pending FDA clearance for its investigational new drug application, or an IND:

 

   

CLN-049 is a FLT3/CD3 T cell engaging bispecific antibody being investigated in patients with relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome. CLN-049 is currently in an ongoing Phase 1 study with initial clinical data expected in mid-2023.

 

   

CLN-619 is a monoclonal antibody that stabilizes expression of MICA/B on the tumor cell surface to promote tumor cell lysis mediated by both cytotoxic innate and adaptive immune cells. CLN-619 has broad therapeutic potential and is being investigated as both monotherapy and in combination with checkpoint inhibitor therapy in an ongoing Phase 1 study in patients with advanced solid tumors with initial clinical data expected in mid-2023.

 

   

CLN-418 is a B7H4/4-1BB bispecific antibody that induces tumor-specific immune activation and is being investigated in an ongoing Phase 1 study in patients with advanced solid tumors with initial clinical data expected in 2024.

 

   

CLN-978 is a CD19/CD3 T cell engaging antibody construct with a human serum albumin binding domain to increase serum half-life. In January 2023, the FDA cleared our IND for CLN-978. We will initially evaluate CLN-978 in a Phase 1 study for the treatment of relapsed/refractory B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

 

   

CLN-617 is a fusion protein combining two potent antitumor cytokines, interleukin-2 and interleukin-12 with tumor retention domains for the treatment of solid tumors. In February 2023, we filed the IND for CLN-617 and intend to initiate a Phase 1 study by the end of 2023, pending IND clearance.

In addition to the product candidates described above, we are actively developing several preclinical oncology programs, all in the discovery stage, including our collaboration with Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai for the development of novel hematopoietic progenitor kinase 1 degraders.

 

-5-


Table of Contents

Our principal executive offices are located at One Main Street, Suite 1350, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, and our telephone number is (617) 410-4650.

 

-6-


Table of Contents

USE OF PROCEEDS

We intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of any securities offered under this prospectus for general corporate purposes unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement. General corporate purposes may include the in-licensing of product candidate rights, research and development costs, including the conduct of our clinical trials and process development and manufacturing of our product candidates, acquisition of companies or businesses, working capital and capital expenditures. We may temporarily invest the net proceeds in a variety of capital preservation instruments, including investment grade, interest bearing instruments and U.S. government securities, until they are used for their stated purpose. We have not determined the amount of net proceeds to be used specifically for such purposes. As a result, management will retain broad discretion over the allocation of the net proceeds of any offering.

 

-7-


Table of Contents

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms and features of any debt securities which we may issue, in one or more series, as either senior or subordinated debt or as senior or subordinated convertible debt. The following description and any description of debt securities in the applicable prospectus supplement may not be complete and is subject to, and is qualified in its entirety by reference to, the indenture relating to such debt securities that we will file with the SEC in connection with a public offering of debt securities.

We will issue the debt securities offered by this prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement under an indenture to be entered into between us and the trustee identified in the applicable prospectus supplement. We have filed the form of indenture as an exhibit to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and supplemental indentures and forms of debt securities containing the terms of any debt securities we may offer will be filed as exhibits to the registration of which this prospectus is a part or will be incorporated by reference from reports that we will file with the SEC. The terms of the debt securities will include those stated in the indenture and those made part of the indenture by reference to the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as in effect on the date of the indenture. The indenture will be subject to and governed by the terms of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939. Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, the debt securities will represent direct, unsecured obligations of the Company and will rank equally with all of our other unsecured indebtedness.

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of debt securities being offered, including:

 

   

the title of the series of debt securities;

 

   

any limit upon the aggregate principal amount that may be issued;

 

   

the maturity date or dates;

 

   

the form of the debt securities of the series;

 

   

the applicability of any guarantees;

 

   

whether or not the debt securities will be secured or unsecured, and the terms of any secured debt;

 

   

whether the debt securities rank as senior debt, senior subordinated debt, subordinated debt or any combination thereof, and the terms of any subordination;

 

   

if the price (expressed as a percentage of the aggregate principal amount thereof) at which such debt securities will be issued is a price other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount thereof payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof, or if applicable, the portion of the principal amount of such debt securities that is convertible into another security or the method by which any such portion shall be determined;

 

   

the interest rate or rates, which may be fixed or variable, or the method for determining the rate and the date interest will begin to accrue, the dates interest will be payable and the regular record dates for interest payment dates or the method for determining such dates;

 

   

our right, if any, to defer payment of interest and the maximum length of any such deferral period;

 

   

if applicable, the date or dates after which, or the period or periods during which, and the price or prices at which, we may, at our option, redeem the series of debt securities pursuant to any optional or provisional redemption provisions and the terms of those redemption provisions;

 

   

the date or dates, if any, on which, and the price or prices at which we are obligated, pursuant to any mandatory sinking fund or analogous fund provisions or otherwise, to redeem, or at the holder’s option to purchase, the series of debt securities and the currency or currency unit in which the debt securities are payable;

 

-8-


Table of Contents
   

the denominations in which we will issue the series of debt securities, if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof;

 

   

any and all terms, if applicable, relating to any auction or remarketing of the debt securities of that series and any security for our obligations with respect to such debt securities and any other terms which may be advisable in connection with the marketing of debt securities of that series;

 

   

whether the debt securities of the series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of a global security or securities;

 

   

the terms and conditions, if any, upon which such global security or securities may be exchanged in whole or in part for other individual securities, and the depositary for such global security or securities;

 

   

if applicable, the provisions relating to conversion or exchange of any debt securities of the series and the terms and conditions upon which such debt securities will be so convertible or exchangeable, including the conversion or exchange price, as applicable, or how it will be calculated and may be adjusted, any mandatory or optional (at our option or the holders’ option) conversion or exchange features, the applicable conversion or exchange period and the manner of settlement for any conversion or exchange;

 

   

if other than the full principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of debt securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof;

 

   

additions to or changes in the covenants applicable to the particular debt securities being issued, including, among others, the consolidation, merger or sale covenant;

 

   

additions to or changes in the events of default with respect to the securities and any change in the right of the trustee or the holders to declare the principal, premium, if any, and interest, if any, with respect to such securities to be due and payable;

 

   

additions to or changes in or deletions of the provisions relating to covenant defeasance and legal defeasance;

 

   

additions to or changes in the provisions relating to satisfaction and discharge of the indenture;

 

   

additions to or changes in the provisions relating to the modification of the indenture both with and without the consent of holders of debt securities issued under the indenture;

 

   

the of payment of debt securities if other than U.S. dollars and the manner of determining the equivalent amount in U.S. dollars;

 

   

whether interest will be payable in cash or additional debt securities at our or the holders’ option and the terms and conditions upon which the election may be made;

 

   

the terms and conditions, if any, upon which we will pay amounts in addition to the stated interest, premium, if any and principal amounts of the debt securities of the series to any holder that is not a “United States person” for federal tax purposes;

 

   

restrictions on transfer, sale or assignment of the debt securities of the series; and

 

   

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of, or restrictions on, the debt securities, any other additions or changes in the provisions of the indenture, and any terms that may be required by us or advisable under applicable laws or regulations.

We may issue discount debt securities that provide for an amount less than the stated principal amount to be due and payable upon acceleration of the maturity of such debt securities in accordance with the terms of the indenture. We may also issue debt securities in bearer form, with or without coupons. If we issue discount debt securities or debt securities in bearer form, we will describe material U.S. federal income tax considerations and other material special considerations which apply to these debt securities in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

-9-


Table of Contents

We may issue debt securities denominated in or payable in a foreign currency or currencies or a foreign currency unit or units. If we do, we will describe the restrictions, elections, and general tax considerations relating to the debt securities and the foreign currency or currencies or foreign currency unit or units in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Exchange and/or Conversion Rights

We may issue debt securities which can be exchanged for or converted into shares of our common stock or preferred shares. If we do, we will describe the terms of exchange or conversion in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to these debt securities.

Transfer and Exchange

We may issue debt securities that will be represented by either:

 

   

“book-entry,” which means that there will be one or more global securities registered in the name of a depositary or a nominee of a depositary; or

 

   

“certificated securities,” which means that they will be represented by a certificate issued in definitive registered form.

We will specify in the prospectus supplement applicable to a particular offering whether the debt securities offered will be book-entry or certificated securities.

Certificated Debt Securities

If we issue certificated debt securities, a holder may transfer or exchange such debt securities at the trustee’s office or at the paying agent’s office or agency in accordance with the terms of the indenture. A holder will not be charged a service charge for any transfer or exchange of certificated debt securities but may be required to pay an amount sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge payable in connection with such transfer or exchange.

A holder may effect the transfer of certificated debt securities and of the right to receive the principal of, premium, and/or interest, if any, on the certificated debt securities only by surrendering the certificate representing the certificated debt securities and having us or the trustee issue a new certificate to the new holder.

Global Securities

If we decide to issue debt securities in the form of one or more global securities, then we will register the global securities in the name of the depositary for the global securities or the nominee of the depositary, and the global securities will be delivered by the trustee to the depositary for credit to the accounts of the holders of beneficial interests in the debt securities.

The prospectus supplement will describe the specific terms of the depositary arrangement for debt securities of a series that are issued in global form. None of our Company, the trustee, any payment agent or the security registrar will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to or payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in a global debt security or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to these beneficial ownership interests.

No Protection in the Event of Change of Control

Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement with respect to a particular series of debt securities, the debt securities will not contain any provisions that may afford holders of debt securities protection in the event we have a change in control or in the event of a highly leveraged transaction (whether or not such transaction results in a change in control).

 

-10-


Table of Contents

Covenants

We will set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement any restrictive covenants applicable to any issue of debt securities.

Consolidation, Merger and Sale of Assets

Unless we indicate otherwise in a prospectus supplement, we will not, in any transaction or series of transactions, merge or consolidate with or into, or sell, assign, convey or transfer, lease or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of our properties and assets, unless:

 

   

either (A) if the transaction or series of transactions is a merger or consolidation, the Company shall be the surviving person of such merger or consolidation, or (B) the person formed by such consolidation or into which the Company is merged or to which the properties and assets of the Company are transferred shall be a corporation or entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes organized and existing under the laws of the United States of America, any state thereof or the District of Columbia, or a corporation or comparable legal entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes organized under the laws of a foreign jurisdiction and shall expressly assume by a supplemental indenture executed and delivered to the trustee, in form reasonably satisfactory to the trustee, all of the obligations of the Company (including, without limitation, the obligation to pay the principal of, and premium and interest, if any, on, the securities and the performance of the other covenants) under the indenture as supplemented, and in each case, the indenture shall remain in full force and effect; and

 

   

immediately before and immediately after giving effect to such transaction or series of transactions on a pro forma basis (including, without limitation, any indebtedness incurred or anticipated to be incurred in connection with or in respect of such transaction or series of transactions), no default or event of default shall have occurred and be continuing.

Events of Defaults

Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, the following events will be events of default under the indenture with respect to debt securities of any series:

 

   

we default in the payment of any principal of, or premium, if any, on, the debt securities when it becomes due and payable at maturity, upon acceleration, redemption or otherwise;

 

   

we default in the payment of any interest on any debt security of a series when the same becomes due and payable, and the default continues for a period of 30 days;

 

   

we default in observance or performance of any other covenant in the debt securities of a series or the indenture for 60 days after written notice from the trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in the aggregate principal amount of the debt securities of such series then outstanding, which notice must specify the default, demand that it be remedied and state that the notice is a “Notice of Default”;

 

   

certain events involving bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization of the Company or any of our significant subsidiaries; and

 

   

any other event of default provided for in such series of debt securities as may be specified in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Holders of a majority in principal amount of the debt securities of any series then outstanding have the right to waive any existing default or event of default with respect to such series or compliance with any provision of the indenture (with respect to such series) or the debt securities of such series with written notice to the trustee. Upon any such waiver, such default with respect to such series shall cease to exist, and any event of default with respect to such series arising therefrom shall be deemed to have been cured for every purpose of the indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other default or event of default or impair any right consequent thereto.

 

-11-


Table of Contents

If an event of default (other than an event of default resulting from certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization with respect to the Company) occurs, and is continuing, then the trustee, by written notice, or the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may declare that the entire principal amount, plus the premium, if any, of all the debt securities of that series then outstanding plus accrued and unpaid interest to the date of acceleration are immediately due and payable. At any time after the acceleration, but before a judgment or decree based on such acceleration is obtained by the trustee, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of outstanding debt securities of such series may rescind and annul such acceleration if:

 

   

all existing events of default (other than nonpayment of accelerated principal, premium or interest) have been cured or waived;

 

   

all lawful interest on overdue installments of interest and overdue principal have been paid; and

 

   

the rescission would not conflict with any judgment or decree.

In addition, if the acceleration occurs at any time when we have outstanding indebtedness which is senior to the debt securities, the payment of the principal amount of outstanding debt securities may be subordinated in right of payment to the prior payment of any amounts due under the senior indebtedness, in which case the holders of debt securities will be entitled to payment under the terms prescribed in the instruments evidencing the senior indebtedness and the indenture.

If an event of default resulting from certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization with respect to the Company occurs, such principal, premium, if any, and interest amount with respect to all the debt securities of that series shall be due and payable immediately without any declaration or other act on part of the trustee or the holders of debt securities of that series.

The holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of a series will have the right to waive any existing default or compliance with any provision of the indenture or the debt securities of that series and to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee, subject to certain limitations specified in the indenture.

No holder of any debt security of a series will have any right to institute any proceeding with respect to the indenture or for any remedy under the indenture, unless:

 

   

the holder gives to the trustee written notice of a continuing event of default with respect to the debt securities of that series;

 

   

the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the affected series make a written request to the trustee;

 

   

the holder or holders offer to the trustee indemnity satisfactory to the trustee against any loss, liability or expense to be incurred in compliance with such request;

 

   

the trustee does not comply with the request within 60 days after such request; and

 

   

the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of the affected series do not give the trustee a direction inconsistent with such request during such 60-day period.

Modification and Waiver

From time to time, we and the trustee may, without the consent of holders of the debt securities of one or more series, amend the indenture or the debt securities of one or more series, or supplement the indenture, for certain specified purposes, including:

 

   

to provide that the surviving entity following a change of control of the Company permitted under the indenture will assume all of our obligations under the indenture and debt securities;

 

-12-


Table of Contents
   

to provide for certificated debt securities in addition to uncertificated debt securities;

 

   

to comply with any requirements of the SEC under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939;

 

   

to cure any mistake, ambiguity, defect or inconsistency, or make any other change that does not materially and adversely affect the rights of any holder;

 

   

to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of debt securities of any series as permitted by the indenture; and

 

   

to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment of a successor trustee under the indenture with respect to one or more series and to add to or change any of the provisions of the indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts by more than one trustee.

From time to time we and the trustee may, with the consent of holders of not less than a majority of the aggregate principal amount of an outstanding series of debt securities, amend or supplement the indenture or the debt securities series, or waive compliance in a particular instance by us with any provision of the indenture or the debt securities. We may not, however, without the consent of each holder affected by such action, modify or supplement the indenture or the debt securities or waive compliance with any provision of the indenture or the debt securities in order to:

 

   

reduce the amount of debt securities whose holders must consent to an amendment, supplement, or waiver to the indenture or such debt security;

 

   

reduce the rate of or change the time for payment of interest on any of the debt securities;

 

   

reduce the principal of or change the stated maturity of the debt securities, or reduce the amount of, or postpone the date fixed for, the payment of any sinking fund or analogous obligation;

 

   

make any debt security payable in money other than that stated in the debt security;

 

   

change the amount or time of any payment required by the debt securities or reduce the premium payable upon any redemption of the debt securities, or change the time before which no such redemption may be made;

 

   

waive a default or event of default in the payment of the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, any debt securities (except a rescission of acceleration of the debt securities of any series by the holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of such series and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from such acceleration);

 

   

waive a redemption payment with respect to any debt securities or change any provision with respect to redemption of debt securities;

 

   

take any other action otherwise prohibited by the indenture to be taken without the consent of each holder affected by the action; or

 

   

make any changes to the above provisions or the acceleration provisions of the indenture, except to increase any percentage of debt securities the holders of which must consent to any matter.

Defeasance of Debt Securities and Certain Covenants in Certain Circumstances

The indenture permits us, at any time, to elect to discharge our obligations with respect to one or more series of debt securities by following certain procedures described in the indenture. These procedures will allow us either:

 

   

to defease and be discharged from any and all of our obligations with respect to any debt securities except for the following obligations, or legal defeasance:

 

   

to replace temporary or mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen debt securities;

 

-13-


Table of Contents
   

the rights, powers, trusts, duties and immunities of the trustee; or

 

   

to maintain an office or agency in respect of the debt securities and to hold monies for payment in trust; or

 

   

to be released from our obligations with respect to the debt securities under certain covenants contained in the indenture, as well as any additional covenants which may be contained in an applicable supplemental indenture, or a covenant defeasance.

In order to exercise either defeasance option, we must irrevocably deposit with the trustee or other qualifying trustee, in trust for that purpose:

 

   

money;

 

   

U.S. Government Obligations (as described below) or Foreign Government Obligations (as described below) which through the scheduled payment of principal and interest in accordance with their terms will provide, not later than the due date of any payment, money; or

 

   

a combination of money and/or U.S. Government Obligations and/or Foreign Government Obligations sufficient in the written opinion of a nationally-recognized firm of independent accountants to provide money;

which in each case specified above, provides an amount sufficient to pay the principal of, premium, if any, and interest, if any, on the debt securities of the series, on the scheduled due dates or on a selected date of redemption in accordance with the terms of the indenture.

In addition, defeasance may be effected only if, among other things:

 

   

in the case of either legal or covenant defeasance, we deliver to the trustee an opinion of counsel, as specified in the indenture;

 

   

in the case of legal defeasance, we deliver to the trustee an opinion of counsel stating that we have received from, or there has been published by, the Internal Revenue Service a ruling to the effect that, or there has been a change in any applicable federal income tax law with the effect that or there has been a change in any applicable U.S. federal income tax law with the effect that, and such opinion shall confirm that, the holders of the outstanding debt securities of such series or persons will not recognize income, gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes solely as a result of such legal defeasance and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner, including as a result of prepayment, and at the same times as would have been the case if legal defeasance had not occurred;

 

   

in the case of covenant defeasance, we deliver to the trustee an opinion of counsel to the effect that the holders of the outstanding debt securities will not recognize income, gain or loss for U.S. federal income tax purposes as a result of covenant defeasance and will be subject to U.S. federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if covenant defeasance had not occurred; and

 

   

certain other conditions described in the indenture are satisfied.

If we fail to comply with our remaining obligations under the indenture and any applicable supplemental indenture after a covenant defeasance of the indenture and any applicable supplemental indenture, and the debt securities are declared due and payable because of the occurrence of any undefeased event of default, the amount of money and/or U.S. Government Obligations and/or Foreign Government Obligations on deposit with the trustee could be insufficient to pay amounts due under the debt securities of the affected series at the time of acceleration. We will, however, remain liable in respect of these payments.

 

-14-


Table of Contents

The term “U.S. Government Obligations” as used in the above discussion means direct non-callable obligations of, or non-callable obligations guaranteed by, the United States of America for the payment of which obligation or guarantee the full faith and credit of the United States of America is pledged.

The term “Foreign Government Obligations” as used in the above discussion means, with respect to securities that are denominated in a foreign currency, (i) direct obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency for the payment of which obligations its full faith and credit is pledged or (ii) obligations of a person controlled or supervised by, or acting as an agency or instrumentality of, such government, the timely payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by such government, which, in either case under clauses (i) and (ii), are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof.

Regarding the Trustee

We will identify the trustee with respect to any series of debt securities in the prospectus supplement relating to the applicable debt securities. You should note that if the trustee becomes a creditor of the Company, the indenture and the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 limit the rights of the trustee to obtain payment of claims in certain cases, or to realize on certain property received in respect of any such claim, as security or otherwise. The trustee and its affiliates may engage in, and will be permitted to continue to engage in, other transactions with us and our affiliates. If, however, the trustee acquires any “conflicting interest” within the meaning of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, it must eliminate such conflict or resign.

The holders of a majority in principal amount of the then outstanding debt securities of any series may direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for exercising any remedy available to the trustee. If an event of default occurs and is continuing, the trustee, in the exercise of its rights and powers, must use the degree of care and skill of a prudent person under the same circumstances in the conduct of his or her own affairs. Subject to that provision, the trustee will be under no obligation to exercise any of its rights or powers under the indenture at the request of any of the holders of the debt securities, unless they have offered to the trustee indemnity or security against the costs, expenses and liabilities which may be incurred therein or thereby.

Governing Law

The indenture and the debt securities, including any claim or controversy arising out of or relating to the indenture or the securities, will be governed by the laws of the State of New York.

 

-15-


Table of Contents

DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

The following description of our capital stock is intended as a summary only and therefore is not a complete description of our capital stock. This description is based upon, and is qualified by reference to, our Second Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, as amended, or our certificate of incorporation, our Second Amended and Restated Bylaws, or our bylaws, and applicable provisions of Delaware corporate law. You should read our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, which are filed as exhibits to our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, for the provisions that are important to you.

Our authorized capital stock consists of 150,000,000 shares of common stock and 10,000,000 shares of preferred stock. As of March 1, 2023, 39,327,298 shares of common stock were outstanding and 647,500 shares of preferred stock were outstanding.

Common Stock

The holders of our common stock are entitled to one vote for each share held on all matters submitted to a vote of the stockholders. The holders of our common stock do not have any cumulative voting rights. Holders of our common stock are entitled to receive ratably any dividends declared by our board of directors out of funds legally available for that purpose, subject to any preferential dividend rights of any outstanding preferred stock. Our common stock has no preemptive rights, conversion rights or other subscription rights or redemption or sinking fund provisions.

In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of our common stock will be entitled to share ratably in all assets remaining after payment of all debts and other liabilities and any liquidation preference of any outstanding preferred stock.

Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market under the trading symbol “CGEM.”

The transfer agent and registrar for our common stock is Computershare Trust Company, N.A.

Preferred Stock

Our board of directors has the authority, from time to time, without further action by our stockholders, to issue up to 10,000,000 shares of convertible preferred stock in one or more series and to fix the rights, preferences, privileges and restrictions thereof.

In January 2023, our board of directors authorized the issuance of a series of preferred stock designated as Series A Convertible Preferred Stock, par value $0.0001 per share, or the Series A preferred stock. Each share of the Series A preferred stock is convertible into 10 shares of common stock at the option of the holder at any time, subject to certain limitations, including that the holder will be prohibited from converting Series A preferred stock into common stock if, as a result of such conversion, the holder, together with its affiliates, would beneficially own a number of shares of common stock above a conversion which is initially set at 9.99%, or the Conversion Blocker, of the total common stock then issued and outstanding immediately following the conversion of such shares of Series A preferred stock. Holders of the Series A preferred stock are permitted to increase the Conversion Blocker to an amount not to exceed 19.99% upon 60 days’ notice. The shares of Series A preferred stock generally have no voting rights, except as required by law and except that the consent of a majority of the holders of the outstanding Series A preferred stock will be required to amend the terms of the Series A preferred stock. In the event of our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, holders of Series A preferred stock will participate pari passu with any distribution of proceeds to holders of common stock. Holders of Series A preferred stock are entitled to receive when, as and if dividends are declared and paid on the common stock, an equivalent dividend, calculated on an as-converted basis. Shares of Series A preferred stock are otherwise not entitled to dividends.

 

-16-


Table of Contents

The Series A preferred stock ranks (i) senior to any class or series of our capital stock hereafter created specifically ranking by its terms junior to the Series A preferred stock; (ii) on parity with the common stock and any class or series of our capital stock created specifically ranking by its terms on parity with the Series A preferred stock; and (iii) junior to any class or series of our capital stock created specifically ranking by its terms senior to any Series A preferred stock, in each case, as to distributions of assets upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up, whether voluntarily or involuntarily.

Registration Rights

Certain holders of shares of our common stock are entitled to rights with respect to the registration of these securities under the Securities Act. These rights are provided under the terms of the registration rights agreement. The registration rights agreement includes demand registration rights, short-form registration rights and piggyback registration rights. All fees, costs and expenses incurred in connection with registrations under the registration rights agreement will be borne by us, and all selling expenses, including underwriting discounts and selling commissions, will be borne by the holders of the shares being registered.

Form S-1 Demand Registration Rights

Holders of certain of our registrable securities are entitled to demand registration rights. Under the terms of our registration rights agreement, we will be required, upon the request of a holder of at least a majority of our then outstanding registrable securities, to file a registration statement and use reasonable best efforts to effect the registration for public resale of these shares and any additional registrable securities requested to be included in such registration by any other holders of our registrable securities.

Form S-3 Demand Registration Rights

Holders of certain of our registrable securities are also entitled to short-form registration rights. Pursuant to our registration rights agreement, at any time that we are eligible to file a registration statement on Form S-3, upon the request of a holder of our registrable securities, we will be required to use our reasonable best efforts to effect a registration of such shares and any additional registrable securities requested to be included in such registration by any other holders of our registrable securities. We will be required to effect up to two registrations in any twelve-month period pursuant to this provision of the registration rights agreement.

Piggyback Registration Rights

The holders of our registrable securities will be entitled to piggyback registration rights. If we register any of our securities either for our own account or for the account of other security holders, the holders of our outstanding registrable securities will be entitled to include their shares in the registration. Subject to certain exceptions contained in the registration rights agreement, we and the underwriters may limit the number of shares included in the underwritten offering if the underwriters determine that marketing factors require a limitation of the number of shares to be underwritten.

Indemnification

Our registration rights agreement contains customary cross-indemnification provisions, under which we will be obligated to indemnify holders of registrable securities in the event of material misstatements or omissions in the registration statement attributable to us, and they will be obligated to indemnify us for material misstatements or omissions attributable to them.

Expenses of Registration

We will pay the registration expenses, subject to certain limited exceptions contained in the registration rights agreement, of the holders of the shares registered pursuant to the demand, short-form and piggyback registration rights described above, including the expenses of one counsel for the selling holders.

 

-17-


Table of Contents

Expiration of Registration Rights

The registration rights granted under the registration rights agreement will terminate upon the earliest to occur of: (i) such time after our initial public offering when all registrable securities could be sold under Rule 144 of the Securities Act or a similar exemption without limitation during a three-month period without registration; (ii) the consummation of a transaction or series of transactions in which a person, or a group of persons, acquires from our stockholders, shares representing more than 50% of our outstanding voting stock; and (iii) the consummation of a transaction or series of transactions in which a person, or group of persons, acquires the right to receive the majority of the proceeds in a final liquidation, dissolution or termination, voluntary or involuntary, of the company.

Authorized but Unissued Capital Stock

The DGCL does not require stockholder approval for any issuance of authorized shares. However, the listing requirements of Nasdaq, which apply so long as our common stock remains listed on Nasdaq, require stockholder approval of certain issuances equal to or exceeding 20% of the then outstanding voting power or then outstanding number of shares of common stock. These additional shares may be used for a variety of corporate purposes, including future public offerings, to raise additional capital or to facilitate acquisitions.

One of the effects of the existence of unissued and unreserved common stock or preferred stock may be to enable our board of directors to issue shares to persons friendly to current management, which issuance could render more difficult or discourage an attempt to obtain control of our company by means of a merger, tender offer, proxy contest or otherwise, and thereby protect the continuity of our management and possibly deprive our stockholders of opportunities to sell their shares of common stock at prices higher than prevailing market prices.

Anti-Takeover Effects of Provisions of Delaware Law and Our Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws

Certain provisions of the DGCL, our certificate of incorporation and bylaws include a number of provisions that may have the effect of delaying, deferring or discouraging another party from acquiring control of us. These provisions, which are summarized below, are expected to discourage certain types of coercive takeover practices and inadequate takeover bids and, as a consequence, they might also inhibit temporary fluctuations in the market price of our common stock that often result from actual or rumored hostile takeover attempts. These provisions are also designed in part to encourage anyone seeking to acquire control of us to first negotiate with our board of directors. These provisions might also have the effect of preventing changes in our management. It is possible that these provisions could make it more difficult to accomplish transactions that stockholders might otherwise deem to be in their best interests. However, we believe that the advantages gained by protecting our ability to negotiate with any unsolicited and potentially unfriendly acquirer outweigh the disadvantages of discouraging such proposals, including those priced above the then-current market value of our common stock, because, among other reasons, the negotiation of such proposals could improve their terms.

Board Composition and Filling Vacancies

Our certificate of incorporation provides for the division of our board of directors into three classes serving staggered three-year terms, with one class being elected each year. Our certificate of incorporation also provides that directors may be removed only for cause and then only by the affirmative vote of the holders of two-thirds or more of the shares then entitled to vote at an election of directors. Furthermore, any vacancy on our board of directors, however occurring, including a vacancy resulting from an increase in the size of our board, may only be filled by the affirmative vote of a majority of our directors then in office even if less than a quorum. The classification of directors, together with the limitations on removal of directors and treatment of vacancies, has the effect of making it more difficult for stockholders to change the composition of our board of directors.

No Written Consent of Stockholders

Our certificate of incorporation provides that all stockholder actions are required to be taken by a vote of the stockholders at an annual or special meeting, and that stockholders may not take any action by written consent in

 

-18-


Table of Contents

lieu of a meeting. This limit may lengthen the amount of time required to take stockholder actions and would prevent the amendment of our bylaws or removal of directors by our stockholders without holding a meeting of stockholders.

Meetings of Stockholders

Our certificate of incorporation and bylaws provide that only a majority of the members of our board of directors then in office may call special meetings of stockholders and only those matters set forth in the notice of the special meeting may be considered or acted upon at a special meeting of stockholders. Our bylaws limit the business that may be conducted at an annual meeting of stockholders to those matters properly brought before the meeting.

Advance Notice Requirements

Our bylaws establish advance notice procedures with regard to stockholder proposals relating to the nomination of candidates for election as directors or new business to be brought before meetings of our stockholders. These procedures provide that notice of stockholder proposals must be timely given in writing to our corporate secretary prior to the meeting at which the action is to be taken. Generally, to be timely, notice must be received at our principal executive offices not less than 90 days nor more than 120 days prior to the first anniversary date of the annual meeting for the preceding year. Our bylaws specify the requirements as to form and content of all stockholders’ notices. These requirements may preclude stockholders from bringing matters before the stockholders at an annual or special meeting.

Amendment to Certificate of Incorporation and Bylaws

Any amendment of our certificate of incorporation must first be approved by a majority of our board of directors, and if required by law or our certificate of incorporation, must thereafter be approved by a majority of the outstanding shares entitled to vote on the amendment and a majority of the outstanding shares of each class entitled to vote thereon as a class, except that the amendment of the provisions relating to stockholder action, board composition, and limitation of liability must be approved by not less than two-thirds of the outstanding shares entitled to vote on the amendment, and not less than two-thirds of the outstanding shares of each class entitled to vote thereon as a class. Our bylaws may be amended by the affirmative vote of a majority of the directors then in office, subject to any limitations set forth in the bylaws; and may also be amended by the affirmative vote of a majority of the outstanding shares entitled to vote on the amendment, voting together as a single class, except that the amendment of the provisions relating to notice of stockholder business and nominations and special meetings must be approved by not less than two-thirds of the outstanding shares entitled to vote on the amendment, and not less than two-thirds of the outstanding shares of each class entitled to vote thereon as a class, or, if our board of directors recommends that the stockholders approve the amendment, by the affirmative vote of the majority of the outstanding shares entitled to vote on the amendment, in each case voting together as a single class.

Undesignated Preferred Stock

Our certificate of incorporation provides for 10,000,000 authorized shares of preferred stock. As of March 1, 2023, 9,352,500 shares of preferred stock are authorized but unissued. The existence of authorized but unissued shares of preferred stock may enable our board of directors to discourage an attempt to obtain control of us by means of a merger, tender offer, proxy contest or otherwise. For example, if in the due exercise of its fiduciary obligations, our board of directors were to determine that a takeover proposal is not in the best interests of our stockholders, our board of directors could cause shares of preferred stock to be issued without stockholder approval in one or more private offerings or other transactions that might dilute the voting or other rights of the proposed acquirer or insurgent stockholder or stockholder group. In this regard, our certificate of incorporation grants our board of directors’ broad power to establish the rights and preferences of authorized and unissued

 

-19-


Table of Contents

shares of preferred stock. The issuance of shares of preferred stock could decrease the amount of earnings and assets available for distribution to holders of shares of common stock. The issuance may also adversely affect the rights and powers, including voting rights, of these holders and may have the effect of delaying, deterring or preventing a change in control of us.

Choice of Forum

Our bylaws provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware shall be the sole and exclusive forum for any state law claims for (1) any derivative action or proceeding brought on our behalf, (2) any action asserting a claim of breach of a fiduciary duty owed by any of our directors, officers, and employees to us or our stockholders, (3) any action asserting a claim arising pursuant to the DGCL, our certificate of incorporation or our bylaws, (4) any action to interpret, apply, enforce or determine the validity of our certificate of incorporation or bylaws, or (5) any action asserting a claim that is governed by the internal affairs doctrine; provided, however, that the this provision shall not apply to any causes of action arising under the Securities Act or Exchange Act. In addition, our bylaws provide that, unless we consent in writing to the selection of an alternative forum, the United States District Court for the District of Delaware shall be the sole and exclusive forum for resolving any complaint asserting a cause of action arising under the Securities Act. Any person or entity purchasing or otherwise acquiring any interest in our securities shall be deemed to have notice of and consented to these forum provisions. These forum provisions may impose additional costs on stockholders, may limit our stockholders’ ability to bring a claim in a forum they find favorable, and the designated courts may reach different judgments or results than other courts. In addition, there is uncertainty as to whether the federal forum provision for Securities Act claims will be enforced, which may impose additional costs on us and our stockholders.

Delaware Takeover Statute

We are subject to the provisions of Section 203 of the DGCL. In general, Section 203 prohibits a publicly held Delaware corporation from engaging in a “business combination” with an “interested stockholder” for a three-year period following the time that this stockholder becomes an interested stockholder, unless the business combination is approved in a prescribed manner. Under Section 203, a business combination between a corporation and an interested stockholder is prohibited unless it satisfies one of the following conditions:

 

   

before the stockholder became interested, our board of directors approved either the business combination or the transaction which resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder;

 

   

upon consummation of the transaction which resulted in the stockholder becoming an interested stockholder, the interested stockholder owned at least 85% of the voting stock of the corporation outstanding at the time the transaction commenced, excluding for purposes of determining the voting stock outstanding, shares owned by persons who are directors and also officers, and employee stock plans, in some instances, but not the outstanding voting stock owned by the interested stockholder; or

 

   

at or after the time the stockholder became interested, the business combination was approved by our board of directors and authorized at an annual or special meeting of the stockholders by the affirmative vote of at least two-thirds of the outstanding voting stock which is not owned by the interested stockholder.

Section 203 defines a business combination to include:

 

   

any merger or consolidation involving the corporation and the interested stockholder;

 

   

any sale, transfer, lease, pledge, exchange, mortgage or other disposition involving the interested stockholder of 10% or more of the assets of the corporation;

 

   

subject to exceptions, any transaction that results in the issuance or transfer by the corporation of any stock of the corporation to the interested stockholder;

 

-20-


Table of Contents
   

subject to exceptions, any transaction involving the corporation that has the effect of increasing the proportionate share of the stock of any class or series of the corporation beneficially owned by the interested stockholder; or

 

   

the receipt by the interested stockholder of the benefit of any loans, advances, guarantees, pledges or other financial benefits provided by or through the corporation.

In general, Section 203 defines an interested stockholder as any entity or person beneficially owning 15% or more of the outstanding voting stock of the corporation and any entity or person affiliated with or controlling or controlled by the entity or person.

 

-21-


Table of Contents

DESCRIPTION OF DEPOSITARY SHARES

General

We may, at our option, elect to offer fractional shares of preferred stock, which we call depositary shares, rather than full shares of preferred stock. If we do, we will issue to the public receipts, called depositary receipts, for depositary shares, each of which will represent a fraction, to be described in the applicable prospectus supplement, of a share of a particular series of preferred stock. Unless otherwise provided in the prospectus supplement, each owner of a depositary share will be entitled, in proportion to the applicable fractional interest in a share of preferred stock represented by the depositary share, to all the rights and preferences of the preferred stock represented by the depositary share. Those rights include dividend, voting, redemption, conversion and liquidation rights.

The shares of preferred stock underlying the depositary shares will be deposited with a bank or trust company selected by us to act as depositary under a deposit agreement between us, the depositary and the holders of the depositary receipts. The depositary will be the transfer agent, registrar and dividend disbursing agent for the depositary shares.

The depositary shares will be evidenced by depositary receipts issued pursuant to the deposit agreement. Holders of depositary receipts agree to be bound by the deposit agreement, which requires holders to take certain actions such as filing proof of residence with and paying certain charges to the depositary.

The summary of terms of the depositary shares contained in this prospectus is not a complete description of the terms of the depositary shares. You should refer to the form of the deposit agreement, our certificate of incorporation and the certificate of designation for the applicable series of preferred stock that are, or will be, filed with the SEC.

Dividends and Other Distributions

The depositary will distribute all cash dividends or other cash distributions, if any, received in respect of the preferred stock underlying the depositary shares to the record holders of depositary shares in proportion to the numbers of depositary shares owned by those holders on the relevant record date. The relevant record date for depositary shares will be the same date as the record date for the underlying preferred stock.

If there is a distribution other than in cash, the depositary will distribute property (including securities) received by it to the record holders of depositary shares, unless the depositary determines that it is not feasible to make the distribution. If this occurs, the depositary may, with our approval, adopt another method for the distribution, including selling the property and distributing the net proceeds from the sale to the holders.

Liquidation Preference

If a series of preferred stock underlying the depositary shares has a liquidation preference, in the event of the voluntary or involuntary liquidation, dissolution or winding up of us, holders of depositary shares will be entitled to receive the fraction of the liquidation preference accorded each share of the applicable series of preferred stock, as set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Withdrawal of Stock

Unless the related depositary shares have been previously called for redemption, upon surrender of the depositary receipts at the office of the depositary, the holder of the depositary shares will be entitled to delivery, at the office of the depositary to or upon his or her order, of the number of whole shares of the preferred stock and any money or other property represented by the depositary shares. If the depositary receipts delivered by the

 

-22-


Table of Contents

holder evidence a number of depositary shares in excess of the number of depositary shares representing the number of whole shares of preferred stock to be withdrawn, the depositary will deliver to the holder at the same time a new depositary receipt evidencing the excess number of depositary shares. In no event will the depositary deliver fractional shares of preferred stock upon surrender of depositary receipts. Holders of preferred stock thus withdrawn may not thereafter deposit those shares under the deposit agreement or receive depositary receipts evidencing depositary shares therefor.

Redemption of Depositary Shares

Whenever we redeem shares of preferred stock held by the depositary, the depositary will redeem as of the same redemption date the number of depositary shares representing shares of the preferred stock so redeemed, so long as we have paid in full to the depositary the redemption price of the preferred stock to be redeemed plus an amount equal to any accumulated and unpaid dividends on the preferred stock to the date fixed for redemption. The redemption price per depositary share will be equal to the redemption price and any other amounts per share payable on the preferred stock multiplied by the fraction of a share of preferred stock represented by one depositary share. If less than all the depositary shares are to be redeemed, the depositary shares to be redeemed will be selected by lot or pro rata or by any other equitable method as may be determined by the depositary.

After the date fixed for redemption, depositary shares called for redemption will no longer be deemed to be outstanding and all rights of the holders of depositary shares will cease, except the right to receive the monies payable upon redemption and any money or other property to which the holders of the depositary shares were entitled upon redemption upon surrender to the depositary of the depositary receipts evidencing the depositary shares.

Voting the Preferred Stock

Upon receipt of notice of any meeting at which the holders of the preferred stock are entitled to vote, the depositary will mail the information contained in the notice of meeting to the record holders of the depositary receipts relating to that preferred stock. The record date for the depositary receipts relating to the preferred stock will be the same date as the record date for the preferred stock. Each record holder of the depositary shares on the record date will be entitled to instruct the depositary as to the exercise of the voting rights pertaining to the number of shares of preferred stock represented by that holder’s depositary shares. The depositary will endeavor, insofar as practicable, to vote the number of shares of preferred stock represented by the depositary shares in accordance with those instructions, and we will agree to take all action that may be deemed necessary by the depositary in order to enable the depositary to do so. The depositary will not vote any shares of preferred stock except to the extent it receives specific instructions from the holders of depositary shares representing that number of shares of preferred stock.

Charges of Depositary

We will pay all transfer and other taxes and governmental charges arising solely from the existence of the depositary arrangements. We will pay the charges due to the depositary in connection with the initial deposit of the preferred stock and any redemption of the preferred stock. Holders of depositary receipts will pay transfer, income and other taxes and governmental charges and such other charges (including those in connection with the receipt and distribution of dividends, the sale or exercise of rights, the withdrawal of the preferred stock and the transferring, splitting or grouping of depositary receipts) as are expressly provided in the deposit agreement to be for their accounts. If these charges have not been paid by the holders of depositary receipts, the depositary may refuse to transfer depositary shares, withhold dividends and distributions and sell the depositary shares evidenced by the depositary receipt.

Amendment and Termination of the Deposit Agreement

The form of depositary receipt evidencing the depositary shares and any provision of the deposit agreement may be amended by agreement between us and the depositary. However, any amendment that materially and

 

-23-


Table of Contents

adversely alters the rights of the holders of depositary shares, other than fee changes, will not be effective unless the amendment has been approved by the holders of a majority of the outstanding depositary shares affected by the amendment. The deposit agreement may be terminated by the depositary or us only if:

 

   

all outstanding depositary shares have been redeemed; or

 

   

there has been a final distribution of the preferred stock in connection with our dissolution and such distribution has been made to all the holders of depositary shares.

Resignation and Removal of Depositary

The depositary may resign at any time by delivering to us notice of its election to do so, and we may remove the depositary at any time. Any resignation or removal of the depositary will take effect upon our appointment of a successor depositary and its acceptance of such appointment. The successor depositary must be appointed within 60 days after delivery of the notice of resignation or removal and must be a bank or trust company having its principal office in the United States and having the requisite combined capital and surplus as set forth in the applicable agreement.

Notices

The depositary will forward to holders of depositary receipts all notices, reports and other communications, including proxy solicitation materials received from us, that are delivered to the depositary and that we are required to furnish to the holders of the preferred stock. In addition, the depositary will make available for inspection by holders of depositary receipts at the principal office of the depositary, and at such other places as it may from time to time deem advisable, any reports and communications we deliver to the depositary as the holder of preferred stock.

Limitation of Liability

Neither we nor the depositary will be liable if either we or it is prevented or delayed by law or any circumstance beyond its control in performing its obligations. Our obligations and those of the depositary will be limited to performance in good faith of our and their duties thereunder. We and the depositary will not be obligated to prosecute or defend any legal proceeding in respect of any depositary shares or preferred stock unless satisfactory indemnity is furnished. We and the depositary may rely upon written advice of counsel or accountants, on information provided by persons presenting preferred stock for deposit, holders of depositary receipts or other persons believed to be competent to give such information and on documents believed to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper party or parties.

 

-24-


Table of Contents

DESCRIPTION OF SUBSCRIPTION RIGHTS

We may, at our option, elect to offer subscription rights. In general, a subscription right entitles the holder to purchase for cash a specific number of shares of equity securities at a specified exercise price. Subscription rights are normally issued to stockholders as of a specific record date, may be exercised only for a limited period of time and become void following the expiration of such period. If we determine to issue subscription rights, the applicable prospectus supplement will describe, among other things:

 

   

the record date for stockholders entitled to receive the subscription rights;

 

   

the number of equity securities that may be purchased upon exercise of each subscription right;

 

   

the exercise price of the subscription rights;

 

   

whether the subscription rights are transferable;

 

   

the period during which the subscription rights may be exercised and when they will expire;

 

   

the steps required to exercise the subscription rights;

 

   

the price, if any, for the subscription rights;

 

   

the number of subscription rights issued;

 

   

the terms of the equity securities;

 

   

the extent to which the subscription rights are transferable;

 

   

if applicable, the material terms of any standby underwriting or other arrangement entered into by us in connection with the offering of subscription rights;

 

   

the other terms of the subscription rights, including the terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exercise of the subscription rights;

 

   

whether the subscription rights include “oversubscription rights” so that the holder may purchase more securities if other holders do not purchase their full allotments;

 

   

whether we intend to sell the shares of equity securities that are not purchased in the rights offering to an underwriter or other purchaser under a contractual “standby” commitment or other arrangement; and

 

   

any applicable United States federal income tax considerations.

If fewer than all of the subscription rights issued in any rights offering are exercised, we may offer any unsubscribed securities directly to persons other than stockholders, to or through agents, underwriters or dealers or through a combination of such methods, including pursuant to standby arrangements, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Subscription rights may be issued independently or together with any other security and may or may not be transferable. As part of the rights offering, we may enter into a standby underwriting or other arrangement under which the underwriters or any other person would purchase any securities that are not purchased in such rights offering. If we issue subscription rights, they may be governed by a separate subscription rights agreement that we will sign with a bank or trust company, as rights agent, that will be named in the applicable prospectus supplement. The rights agent will act solely as our agent and will not assume any obligation to any holders of rights certificates or beneficial owners of rights.

 

-25-


Table of Contents

DESCRIPTION OF PURCHASE CONTRACTS

We may issue purchase contracts, representing contracts obligating holders to purchase from us, and obligating us to sell to the holders, a specified number of shares of common stock, shares of preferred stock, or other securities described in this prospectus or the applicable prospectus supplement at a future date or dates. The price per share may be fixed at the time the share purchase contracts are issued or may be determined by reference to a specific formula set forth in the share purchase contracts. The purchase contracts may be issued separately or as a part of units consisting of a purchase contract and either shares of common stock, shares of preferred stock, our debt securities or debt obligations of third parties, including U.S. Treasury securities, any other security described in the applicable prospectus supplement, or any combination of the foregoing, securing the holder’s obligations to purchase the securities under the share purchase contracts.

The purchase contracts may require us to make periodic payments to the holders of units or vice versa, and such payments may be unsecured or prefunded on some basis. The purchase contracts may require holders to secure their obligations thereunder in a specified manner. In certain circumstances, we may deliver newly issued prepaid purchase contracts upon release to a holder of any collateral securing the holder’s obligations under the original purchase contract.

The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms of the purchase contracts. The description in the prospectus supplement will only be a summary, and you should read the purchase contracts, and, if applicable, collateral or depositary arrangements, relating to the purchase contracts. Material United States federal income tax considerations applicable to the purchase contracts will also be discussed in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Unless otherwise specified in an accompanying prospectus supplement, each purchase contract and any related agreement will be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the laws of the State of New York.

 

-26-


Table of Contents

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

We may issue warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock, depositary shares or debt securities. We may offer warrants separately or together with one or more additional warrants, common stock, preferred stock, depositary shares or debt securities, or any combination of those securities in the form of units, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. If we issue warrants as part of a unit, the accompanying prospectus supplement will specify whether those warrants may be separated from the other securities in the unit prior to the expiration date of the warrants. The applicable prospectus supplement will also describe the terms of any warrants, including:

 

   

the specific designation and aggregate number of, and the offering price at which we will issue, the warrants;

 

   

the currency or currency units in which the offering price, if any, and the exercise price are payable;

 

   

the date on which the right to exercise the warrants will begin and the date on which that right will expire or, if you may not continuously exercise the warrants throughout that period, the specific date or dates on which you may exercise the warrants;

 

   

whether the warrants are to be sold separately or with other securities as parts of units;

 

   

whether the warrants will be issued in definitive or global form or in any combination of these forms, although, in any case, the form of a warrant included in a unit will correspond to the form of the unit and of any security included in that unit;

 

   

any applicable material U.S. federal income tax consequences;

 

   

the identity of the warrant agent for the warrants and of any other depositaries, execution or paying agents, transfer agents, registrars or other agents;

 

   

the proposed listing, if any, of the warrants or any securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants on any securities exchange;

 

   

the designation and terms of any equity securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrants;

 

   

the designation, aggregate principal amount, currency and terms of any debt securities that may be purchased upon exercise of the warrants;

 

   

if applicable, the designation and terms of the preferred stock or depositary shares with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each security;

 

   

if applicable, the date from and after which any warrants issued as part of a unit and the related debt securities, preferred stock, depositary shares or common stock will be separately transferable;

 

   

the number of shares of common stock, preferred stock or depositary shares purchasable upon exercise of a warrant and the price at which those shares may be purchased;

 

   

if applicable, the minimum or maximum amount of the warrants that may be exercised at any one time;

 

   

information with respect to book-entry procedures, if any;

 

   

the anti-dilution provisions of, and other provisions for changes to or adjustment in the exercise price of, the warrants, if any;

 

   

any redemption or call provisions; and

 

   

any additional terms of the warrants, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the exchange or exercise of the warrants.

 

-27-


Table of Contents

DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

We may issue units consisting of one or more of the other securities described in this prospectus in any combination, as described in the applicable prospectus supplement. We may issue units in one or more series, which will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement. The applicable prospectus supplement will also describe the terms of any units, including:

 

   

the designation and the terms of the units and of the securities constituting the units, including whether and under what circumstances the securities comprising the units may be traded separately;

 

   

the identity of any unit agent for the units, if applicable, and of any other depositaries, execution or paying agents, transfer agents, registrars or other agents;

 

   

any additional terms of the governing unit agreement, if applicable;

 

   

any additional provisions for the issuance, payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units or of the debt securities, common stock, preferred stock, purchase contracts or warrants constituting the unit; and

 

   

any applicable material U.S. federal income tax consequences.

 

-28-


Table of Contents

FORMS OF SECURITIES

Each debt security, depositary share, subscription right, purchase contract, unit and warrant will be represented either by a certificate issued in definitive form to a particular investor or by one or more global securities representing the entire issuance of securities. Unless the applicable prospectus supplement provides otherwise, certificated securities in definitive form and global securities will be issued in registered form. Definitive securities name you or your nominee as the owner of the security, and in order to transfer or exchange these securities or to receive payments other than interest or other interim payments, you or your nominee must physically deliver the securities to the trustee, registrar, paying agent or other agent, as applicable. Global securities name a depositary or its nominee as the owner of the debt securities, depositary shares, subscription rights, purchase contracts, units or warrants represented by these global securities. The depositary maintains a computerized system that will reflect each investor’s beneficial ownership of the securities through an account maintained by the investor with its broker/dealer, bank, trust company or other representative, as we explain more fully below.

Global Securities

We may issue the debt securities of a particular series, depositary shares, subscription right, purchase contracts, units and warrants in the form of one or more fully registered global securities that will be deposited with a depositary or its nominee identified in the applicable prospectus supplement and registered in the name of that depositary or nominee. In those cases, one or more global securities will be issued in a denomination or aggregate denominations equal to the portion of the aggregate principal or face amount of the securities to be represented by global securities. Unless and until it is exchanged in whole for securities in definitive registered form, a global security may not be transferred except as a whole by and among the depositary for the global security, the nominees of the depositary or any successors of the depositary or those nominees.

If not described below, any specific terms of the depositary arrangement with respect to any securities to be represented by a global security will be described in the prospectus supplement relating to those securities. We anticipate that the following provisions will apply to all depositary arrangements.

Ownership of beneficial interests in a global security will be limited to persons, called participants, that have accounts with the depositary or persons that may hold interests through participants. Upon the issuance of a global security, the depositary will credit, on its book-entry registration and transfer system, the participants’ accounts with the respective principal or face amounts of the securities beneficially owned by the participants. Any dealers, underwriters or agents participating in the distribution of the securities will designate the accounts to be credited. Ownership of beneficial interests in a global security will be shown on, and the transfer of ownership interests will be effected only through, records maintained by the depositary, with respect to interests of participants, and on the records of participants, with respect to interests of persons holding through participants. The laws of some states may require that some purchasers of securities take physical delivery of these securities in definitive form. These laws may impair your ability to own, transfer or pledge beneficial interests in global securities.

So long as the depositary, or its nominee, is the registered owner of a global security, that depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, will be considered the sole owner or holder of the securities represented by the global security for all purposes under the applicable indenture, deposit agreement, subscription rights agreement, purchase contract, warrant agreement or unit agreement. Except as described below, owners of beneficial interests in a global security will not be entitled to have the securities represented by the global security registered in their names, will not receive or be entitled to receive physical delivery of the securities in definitive form and will not be considered the owners or holders of the securities under the applicable indenture, deposit agreement, purchase contract, purchase unit agreement or warrant agreement. Accordingly, each person owning a beneficial interest in a global security must rely on the procedures of the depositary for that global security and, if that person is not a participant, on the procedures of the participant through which the person owns its interest, to

 

-29-


Table of Contents

exercise any rights of a holder under the applicable indenture, deposit agreement, subscription right agreement, purchase contract, unit agreement or warrant agreement. We understand that under existing industry practices, if we request any action of holders or if an owner of a beneficial interest in a global security desires to give or take any action that a holder is entitled to give or take under the applicable indenture, deposit agreement, subscription rights agreement, purchase contract, unit agreement or warrant agreement, the depositary for the global security would authorize the participants holding the relevant beneficial interests to give or take that action, and the participants would authorize beneficial owners owning through them to give or take that action or would otherwise act upon the instructions of beneficial owners holding through them.

Principal, premium, if any, and interest payments on debt securities, and any payments to holders with respect to depositary shares, subscription rights, warrants, purchase agreements or units, represented by a global security registered in the name of a depositary or its nominee will be made to the depositary or its nominee, as the case may be, as the registered owner of the global security. None of us, or any trustee, warrant agent, unit agent or other agent of ours, or any agent of any trustee, warrant agent or unit agent will have any responsibility or liability for any aspect of the records relating to payments made on account of beneficial ownership interests in the global security or for maintaining, supervising or reviewing any records relating to those beneficial ownership interests.

We expect that the depositary for any of the securities represented by a global security, upon receipt of any payment to holders of principal, premium, interest or other distribution of underlying securities or other property on that registered global security, will immediately credit participants’ accounts in amounts proportionate to their respective beneficial interests in that global security as shown on the records of the depositary. We also expect that payments by participants to owners of beneficial interests in a global security held through participants will be governed by standing customer instructions and customary practices, as is now the case with the securities held for the accounts of customers or registered in “street name,” and will be the responsibility of those participants.

If the depositary for any of the securities represented by a global security is at any time unwilling or unable to continue as depositary or ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, and a successor depositary registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act is not appointed by us within 90 days, we will issue securities in definitive form in exchange for the global security that had been held by the depositary. Any securities issued in definitive form in exchange for a global security will be registered in the name or names that the depositary gives to the relevant trustee, warrant agent, unit agent or other relevant agent of ours or theirs. It is expected that the depositary’s instructions will be based upon directions received by the depositary from participants with respect to ownership of beneficial interests in the global security that had been held by the depositary.

 

-30-


Table of Contents

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We may sell securities:

 

   

through underwriters;

 

   

through dealers;

 

   

through agents;

 

   

directly to purchasers; or

 

   

through a combination of any of these methods of sale.

In addition, we may issue the securities as a dividend or distribution or in a subscription rights offering to our existing security holders. This prospectus may be used in connection with any offering of our securities through any of these methods or other methods described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

We may directly solicit offers to purchase securities, or agents may be designated to solicit such offers. We will, in the prospectus supplement relating to such offering, name any agent that could be viewed as an underwriter under the Securities Act, and describe any commissions that we must pay. Any such agent will be acting on a best efforts basis for the period of its appointment or, if indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, on a firm commitment basis.

The distribution of the securities may be effected from time to time in one or more transactions:

 

   

at a fixed price, or prices, which may be changed from time to time;

 

   

at market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

 

   

at prices related to such prevailing market prices; or

 

   

at negotiated prices.

Each prospectus supplement will describe the method of distribution of the securities and any applicable restrictions.

The prospectus supplement with respect to the securities of a particular series will describe the terms of the offering of the securities, including the following:

 

   

the name or names of the agent or any underwriters;

 

   

the public offering or purchase price of the securities or other consideration therefor, and the proceeds, if any, we will receive from the sale of the securities;

 

   

any over-allotment options under which underwriters may purchase additional securities from us;

 

   

any discounts and commissions to be allowed or re-allowed or paid to the agent or underwriters;

 

   

all other items constituting underwriting compensation;

 

   

any discounts and commissions to be allowed or re-allowed or paid to dealers; and

 

   

any exchanges on which the securities will be listed.

If any underwriters or agents are utilized in the sale of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered, we will enter into an underwriting agreement or other agreement with them at the time of sale to them, and we will set forth in the prospectus supplement relating to such offering the names of the underwriters or agents and the terms of the related agreement with them.

 

-31-


Table of Contents

If a dealer is utilized in the sale of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is delivered, we will sell such securities to the dealer, as principal. The dealer may then resell such securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by such dealer at the time of resale.

If we offer securities in a subscription rights offering to our existing security holders, we may enter into a standby underwriting agreement with dealers, acting as standby underwriters. We may pay the standby underwriters a commitment fee for the securities they commit to purchase on a standby basis. If we do not enter into a standby underwriting arrangement, we may retain a dealer-manager to manage a subscription rights offering for us.

Remarketing firms, agents, underwriters, dealers and other persons may be entitled under agreements which they may enter into with us to indemnification by us against certain civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, and may be customers of, engage in transactions with or perform services for us in the ordinary course of business.

If so indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will authorize underwriters or other persons acting as our agents to solicit offers by certain institutions to purchase securities from us pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on the date stated in the prospectus supplement. Each contract will be for an amount not less than, and the aggregate amount of securities sold pursuant to such contracts shall not be less nor more than, the respective amounts stated in the prospectus supplement. Institutions with whom the contracts, when authorized, may be made include commercial and savings banks, insurance companies, pension funds, investment companies, educational and charitable institutions and other institutions, but shall in all cases be subject to our approval. Delayed delivery contracts will not be subject to any conditions except that:

 

   

the purchase by an institution of the securities covered under that contract shall not at the time of delivery be prohibited under the laws of the jurisdiction to which that institution is subject; and

 

   

if the securities are also being sold to underwriters acting as principals for their own account, the underwriters shall have purchased such securities not sold for delayed delivery. The underwriters and other persons acting as our agents will not have any responsibility in respect of the validity or performance of delayed delivery contracts.

Certain agents, underwriters and dealers, and their associates and affiliates may be customers of, have borrowing relationships with, engage in other transactions with, and/or perform services, including investment banking services, for us or one or more of our respective affiliates in the ordinary course of business.

In order to facilitate the offering of the securities, any underwriters may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain or otherwise affect the price of the securities or any other securities the prices of which may be used to determine payments on such securities. Specifically, any underwriters may overallot in connection with the offering, creating a short position for their own accounts. In addition, to cover overallotments or to stabilize the price of the securities or of any such other securities, the underwriters may bid for, and purchase, the securities or any such other securities in the open market. Finally, in any offering of the securities through a syndicate of underwriters, the underwriting syndicate may reclaim selling concessions allowed to an underwriter or a dealer for distributing the securities in the offering if the syndicate repurchases previously distributed securities in transactions to cover syndicate short positions, in stabilization transactions or otherwise. Any of these activities may stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities above independent market levels. Any such underwriters are not required to engage in these activities and may end any of these activities at any time.

Under Rule 15c6-1 of the Exchange Act, trades in the secondary market generally are required to settle in two business days, unless the parties to any such trade expressly agree otherwise. The applicable prospectus supplement may provide that the original issue date for your securities may be more than two scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities. Accordingly, in such a case, if you wish to trade securities on any

 

-32-


Table of Contents

date prior to the second business day before the original issue date for your securities, you will be required, by virtue of the fact that your securities initially are expected to settle in more than two scheduled business days after the trade date for your securities, to make alternative settlement arrangements to prevent a failed settlement.

The securities may be new issues of securities and may have no established trading market. The securities may or may not be listed on a national securities exchange. We can make no assurance as to the liquidity of or the existence of trading markets for any of the securities.

 

-33-


Table of Contents

LEGAL MATTERS

Unless the applicable prospectus supplement indicates otherwise, the validity of the securities in respect of which this prospectus is being delivered will be passed upon by Ropes & Gray LLP, Boston, Massachusetts.

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements of Cullinan Oncology, Inc. as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, and for the years then ended, have been incorporated by reference herein and in the registration statement in reliance upon the report of KPMG LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated by reference herein, and upon the authority of said firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

-34-


Table of Contents

 

 

 

LOGO

$350,000,000

Debt Securities

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Depositary Shares

Subscription Rights

Purchase Contracts

Units

Warrants

 

 

PROSPECTUS

 

 

            , 2023

 

 

 


Table of Contents

The information in this prospectus supplement is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities until the registration statement filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus supplement is not an offer to sell these securities and we are not soliciting offers to buy these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

Subject to completion, dated March 9, 2023

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

(To Prospectus dated        , 2023)

Up to $125,000,000

Cullinan Oncology, Inc.

 

LOGO

Common Stock

 

 

We have entered into a sales agreement with SVB Securities LLC, or SVB Securities, dated March 9, 2023, relating to the sale of shares of our common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus. In accordance with the terms of the sales agreement, we may offer and sell shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $125,000,000 from time to time through SVB Securities, acting as our sales agent.

Our common stock is listed on The Nasdaq Global Select Market, or Nasdaq, under the symbol “CGEM.” On March 6, 2023, the last reported sale price of our common stock on Nasdaq was $11.32 per share.

Sales of our common stock, if any, under this prospectus supplement will be made in sales deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) promulgated under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act. SVB Securities will act as our sales agent using commercially reasonable efforts to sell on our behalf all of the common stock requested to be sold by us, consistent with its normal trading and sales practices, on mutually agreed terms between SVB Securities and us, as applicable. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in any escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

SVB Securities will be entitled to a compensation at a fixed commission rate up to 3.0% of the gross sales price per share of all shares sold by SVB Securities under the sales agreement. In connection with the sales of the common stock on our behalf, SVB Securities will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act, and the compensation paid to SVB Securities will be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts. We have agreed to provide indemnification and contribution to SVB Securities against certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, or the Exchange Act.

We are an “emerging growth company” and a “smaller reporting company” under the federal securities laws and, as such, we have elected to comply with certain reduced public company reporting requirements for this prospectus supplement and for future filings. See “Summary - Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company and a Smaller Reporting Company.”

 

 

Investing in our common stock involves certain risks. See “Risk Factors” beginning on Page S-10 of this prospectus supplement, as well as the sections captioned “Risk Factor Summary” and “Item 1A—Risk Factors” in our most recently filed Annual Report on Form 10-K, which is incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement, for certain risks you should consider. You should carefully read all of the information set forth in this prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus, as well as the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, before you make your investment decision.

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus supplement. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

  

 

SVB Securities

 

 

            , 2023


Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

     S-1  

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

     S-3  

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

     S-3  

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

     S-4  

SUMMARY

     S-6  

THE OFFERING

     S-9  

RISK FACTORS

     S-10  

USE OF PROCEEDS

     S-12  

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

     S-13  

LEGAL MATTERS

     S-15  

EXPERTS

     S-15  


Table of Contents

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

This prospectus supplement is part of a registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission, which we refer to as the “SEC,” utilizing a “shelf” registration process. Under the shelf registration process, we may from time to time offer shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $125,000,000 under this prospectus supplement at prices and on terms to be determined by market conditions at the time of offering.

This prospectus supplement relates to the offering of our common stock. Before buying any of the common stock that we are offering, we urge you to carefully read this prospectus supplement, the accompanying base prospectus and the information incorporated by reference herein and therein. These documents contain important information that you should consider when making your investment decision.

To the extent there is a conflict between the information contained in this prospectus supplement, on the one hand, and the accompanying base prospectus or the information contained in any document incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement, on the other hand, that was filed with the SEC prior to the date of this prospectus supplement, you should rely on the information in this prospectus supplement; provided that if any statement in one of these documents is inconsistent with a statement in another document having a later date—for example, a document incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement—the statement in the document having the later date modifies or supersedes the earlier statement.

We further note that the representations, warranties and covenants made by us in any agreement that is filed as an exhibit to any document that is incorporated by reference herein were made solely for the benefit of the parties to such agreement, including, in some cases, for the purpose of allocating risk among the parties to such agreement, and should not be deemed to be a representation, warranty or covenant to you. Moreover, such representations, warranties or covenants were accurate only as of the date when made. Accordingly, such representations, warranties and covenants should not be relied on as accurately representing the current state of our affairs.

You should rely only on the information contained in or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying base prospectus and in any free writing prospectus we may authorize for use in connection with this offering. We have not and SVB Securities, has not authorized anyone to provide any information other than that contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying base prospectus or in any free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of us or to which we have referred you. We and SVB Securities take no responsibility for, and can provide no assurance as to the reliability of, any other information that others may give you. We are not, and SVB Securities is not, making an offer to sell these securities in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information appearing or incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying base prospectus and any free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of us that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering is accurate only as of the date of those respective documents. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates. You should read this prospectus supplement, the accompanying base prospectus, the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, and any free writing prospectus prepared by or on behalf of us that we may authorize for use in connection with this offering, in their entirety, before making an investment decision. You should also read and consider the information in the documents we have referred you to in the sections of this prospectus supplement entitled “Where You Can Find More Information” and “Incorporation by Reference.”

Other than in the United States, no action has been taken by us or SVB Securities that would permit a public offering of the securities offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required. The securities offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus may not be offered or sold, directly or indirectly, nor may this prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus or any other offering material or advertisements in connection

 

S-1


Table of Contents

with the offer and sale of any such securities be distributed or published in any jurisdiction, except under circumstances that will result in compliance with the applicable rules and regulations of that jurisdiction. Persons into whose possession this prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus comes are advised to inform themselves about and to observe any restrictions relating to the offering and the distribution of this prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus. This prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus do not constitute an offer to sell or a solicitation of an offer to buy any securities offered by this prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus in any jurisdiction in which such an offer or a solicitation is unlawful.

Unless the context otherwise indicates, references in this prospectus supplement to the “Company,” “we,” “our” and “us” refer, collectively, to Cullinan Oncology, Inc., a Delaware corporation, and its consolidated subsidiaries.

 

S-2


Table of Contents

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our SEC filings are available to the public over the Internet at the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov. Copies of certain information filed by us with the SEC are also available on our website at http://www.cullinanoncology.com. Our website is not a part of this prospectus supplement and is not incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement.

This prospectus supplement is part of a registration statement we filed with the SEC. This prospectus supplement omits some information contained in the registration statement in accordance with SEC rules and regulations. You should review the information and exhibits in the registration statement for further information about us and our consolidated subsidiaries and the securities we are offering. Statements in this prospectus supplement concerning any document we filed as an exhibit to the registration statement or that we otherwise filed with the SEC are not intended to be comprehensive and are qualified by reference to these filings and the exhibits attached thereto. You should review the complete document to evaluate these statements.

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

The SEC allows us to incorporate by reference much of the information we file with the SEC, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those publicly available documents. The information that we incorporate by reference in this prospectus supplement is considered to be part of this prospectus supplement. Because we are incorporating by reference future filings with the SEC, this prospectus supplement is continually updated and those future filings may modify or supersede some of the information included or incorporated in this prospectus supplement. This means that you must look at all of the SEC filings that we incorporate by reference to determine if any of the statements in this prospectus supplement or in any document previously incorporated by reference have been modified or superseded. This prospectus supplement incorporates by reference the documents listed below (File No. 001-39856) and any future filings we make with the SEC under Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (in each case, other than those documents or the portions of those documents not deemed to be filed) between the date of the initial registration statement and the effectiveness of the registration statement and following the effectiveness of the registration statement until the offering of the securities under the registration statement is terminated or completed:

 

   

Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2022, as filed with the SEC on March 9, 2023;

 

   

our Current Reports on Form 8-K as filed with the SEC on January 19, 2023 and February 14, 2023 (Item 1.01 only); and

 

   

the description of our common stock contained in our Registration Statement on Form 8-A as filed with the SEC on January  6, 2021, as the description therein has been updated and superseded by the description of our capital stock contained in Exhibit 4.3 to our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020, as filed with the SEC on March 30, 2021, and including any amendments and reports filed for the purpose of updating such description.

You may request a copy of these filings, at no cost, by writing or telephoning us at the following address or telephone number:

Cullinan Oncology, Inc.

One Main Street

Suite 1350

Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142

Attn: Investor Relations

(617) 410-4650

 

S-3


Table of Contents

FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

This prospectus supplement and the information incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement contain certain forward-looking statements within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act, and Section 21E of the Exchange Act. These statements involve risks, uncertainties, and other factors that may cause actual results, levels of activity, performance or achievements to be materially different from the information expressed or implied by these forward-looking statements. All statements, other than statements of historical facts, contained in this prospectus supplement, including statements regarding our strategy, future operations, future financial position, future revenue, projected costs, prospects, plans and objectives of management and expected market growth are forward-looking statements. The words “anticipate,” “believe,” “continue,” “could,” “estimate,” “expect,” “intend,” “may,” “plan,” “potential,” “predict,” “project,” “should,” “target,” “would” and similar expressions are intended to identify forward-looking statements, although not all forward-looking statements contain these identifying words.

These forward-looking statements include, among other things, statements about:

 

   

the success, cost and timing of our clinical-stage product candidates, including zipalertinib (CLN-081/TAS6417), CLN-049,CLN-619, CLN-418, and CLN-978;

 

   

the initiation, timing, progress, results and cost of our research and development programs and our current and future preclinical and clinical studies, including statements regarding the timing of initiation and completion of studies or trials and related preparatory work, the period during which the results of the trials will become available, and our research and development programs;

 

   

our ability to initiate, recruit and enroll patients in and conduct our clinical trials at the pace that we project;

 

   

our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approval of our product candidates, and any related restrictions, limitations or warnings in the label of any of our product candidates, if approved;

 

   

our ability to compete with companies currently marketing or engaged in the development of treatments that our product candidates are designed to target;

 

   

our reliance on third parties to conduct our clinical trials and to manufacture drug substance and drug product for use in our clinical trials;

 

   

the size and growth potential of the markets for oncology diseases and any of our current product candidates or other product candidates we may identify and pursue, and our ability to serve those markets;

 

   

our ability to identify and advance through clinical development any additional product candidates;

 

   

the commercialization of our current product candidates and any other product candidates we may identify and pursue, if approved, including our ability to successfully build a specialty sales force and commercial infrastructure to market our current product candidates and any other product candidates we may identify and pursue;

 

   

our ability to identify research priorities and apply a risk-mitigated strategy to efficiently discover and develop product candidates;

 

   

our ability to retain and recruit key personnel;

 

   

our ability to obtain and maintain adequate intellectual property rights;

 

   

our expectations regarding government and third-party payor coverage and reimbursement;

 

   

our estimates of our expenses, ongoing losses, capital requirements and our needs for or ability to obtain additional financing;

 

   

the milestone payments that we may receive from Taiho Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.;

 

S-4


Table of Contents
   

the anticipated development and commercialization of zipalertinib;

 

   

the development of commercial infrastructure;

 

   

potential investments in our pipeline and the potential for such product candidates;

 

   

our cash runway;

 

   

the potential benefits of strategic collaboration agreements, our ability to enter into additional strategic collaborations or arrangements, and our ability to attract collaborators with development, regulatory and commercialization expertise;

 

   

our financial performance;

 

   

developments and projections relating to our competitors or our industry; and

 

   

the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic, including mitigation efforts and economic effects, on any of the foregoing or other aspects of our business operations, including but not limited to our preclinical studies and future clinical trials.

You should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements because they involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors, which are, in some cases, beyond our control and which could materially affect results. Factors that may cause actual results to differ materially from current expectations include, among other things, those discussed under the section of this prospectus supplement titled “Risk Factors.” If one or more of these risks or uncertainties occur, or if our underlying assumptions prove to be incorrect, actual events or results may vary significantly from those implied or projected by the forward-looking statements. Moreover, we operate in a very competitive and rapidly changing environment and new risks emerge from time to time. It is not possible for our management to predict all risks, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ materially from those contained in or implied by any forward-looking statements we may make. No forward-looking statement is a guarantee of future performance.

You should read this prospectus supplement, the accompanying base prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein completely and with the understanding that our actual future results may be materially different from what we expect. You should also carefully review the risk factors, risk factor summary and cautionary statements described in the other documents we file from time to time with the SEC, specifically our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K, our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q and our Current Reports on Form 8-K. We do not assume any obligation to update any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law.

This prospectus supplement, the accompanying base prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein also contain estimates, projections and other information concerning our industry, our business and the markets for our product candidates. Information that is based on estimates, forecasts, projections, market research or similar methodologies is inherently subject to uncertainties and actual events or circumstances may differ materially from events and circumstances that are assumed in this information. Unless otherwise expressly stated, we obtained this industry, business, market and other data from our own internal estimates and research as well as from reports, research surveys, studies, and similar data prepared by market research firms and other third parties, industry, medical and general publications, government data and similar sources. While we are not aware of any misstatements regarding any third-party information presented in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying base prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, their estimates, in particular, as they relate to projections, involve numerous assumptions, are subject to risks and uncertainties and are subject to change based on various factors, including those discussed under the section of this prospectus supplement titled “Risk Factors”.

 

S-5


Table of Contents

SUMMARY

This summary highlights information contained elsewhere in this prospectus supplement and in the documents we incorporate by reference herein. This summary does not contain all of the information that you should consider before deciding to invest in our securities. For a more complete understanding of our company and this offering, you should read carefully this entire prospectus supplement and the accompanying base prospectus, including the information incorporated by reference herein and therein, and any free writing prospectus that we have authorized for use in connection with this offering, including the “Risk Factors” section beginning on page S–9 of this prospectus supplement and the “Risk Factor Summary” and “Risk Factors” sections of our Annual Report on Form 10-K, our financial statements and the related notes and the other documents incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement.

Cullinan Oncology, Inc.

Company Overview

We are a clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company focused on modality-agnostic targeted oncology. Our strategy is to identify high-impact cancer targets and then select what we believe is the optimal therapeutic modality for those targets. We source innovation both internally and externally, focusing on product candidates with novel technology platforms or differentiated mechanisms. Before we advance a product candidate into clinical development, we evaluate its potential for anti-tumor activity as a single agent as well as its ability to generate an immune system response or to inhibit oncogenic processes. Using this strategy, we have built a broad and deep pipeline of targeted oncology programs that includes six distinct product candidates, of which five are clinical-stage, as well as multiple research and discovery programs.

Zipalertinib (CLN-081/TAS6417) which we are co-developing with an affiliate of Taiho Pharmaceutical, Co. Ltd, or Taiho, is an orally bioavailable small-molecule, irreversible epidermal growth factor receptor, or EGFR, inhibitor that is designed to selectively target cells expressing EGFR exon 20 insertion, or EGFRex20ins, mutations with relative sparing of cells expressing wild-type EGFR. The United States Food and Drug Administration, or the FDA, has granted Breakthrough Therapy designation to zipalertinib. In the fourth quarter of 2022, we initiated a pivotal study in patients with EGFR exon 20 non-small-cell lung cancer, or NSCLC, who progressed after prior systemic therapy. In June 2022, Taiho acquired our equity interest in our partially-owned subsidiary, Cullinan Pearl Corp., or Cullinan Pearl, which provided Taiho with worldwide rights to zipalertinib outside of Japan and Greater China, for an upfront payment of $275.0 million. As part of the sale, we are also eligible to receive an additional $130.0 million tied to EGFR exon 20 NSCLC regulatory milestones. Concurrently with the closing of the sale of our equity interest in Cullinan Pearl, we entered into a co-development and co-commercialization agreement for zipalertinib with an affiliate of Taiho, pursuant to which we will collaborate to develop zipalertinib and will retain the option to co-commercialize zipalertinib in the United States, or U.S. Development costs for and any future pre-tax profits from potential U.S. sales of zipalertinib shall be shared equally between us and Taiho.

In addition to zipalertinib, our portfolio includes four other clinical-stage product candidates and one product candidate that is pending FDA clearance for its investigational new drug application, or an IND:

 

   

CLN-049 is a FLT3/CD3 T cell engaging bispecific antibody being investigated in patients with relapsed/refractory acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome. CLN-049 is currently in an ongoing Phase 1 study with initial clinical data expected in mid-2023.

 

   

CLN-619 is a monoclonal antibody that stabilizes expression of MICA/B on the tumor cell surface to promote tumor cell lysis mediated by both cytotoxic innate and adaptive immune cells. CLN-619 has broad therapeutic potential and is being investigated as both monotherapy and in combination with checkpoint inhibitor therapy in an ongoing Phase 1 study in patients with advanced solid tumors with initial clinical data expected in mid-2023.

 

S-6


Table of Contents
   

CLN-418 is a B7H4/4-1BB bispecific antibody that induces tumor-specific immune activation and is being investigated in an ongoing Phase 1 study in patients with advanced solid tumors with initial clinical data expected in 2024.

 

   

CLN-978 is a CD19/CD3 T cell engaging antibody construct with a human serum albumin binding domain to increase serum half-life. In January 2023, the FDA cleared our IND for CLN-978. We will initially evaluate CLN-978 in a Phase 1 study for the treatment of relapsed/refractory B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

 

   

CLN-617 is a fusion protein combining two potent antitumor cytokines, interleukin-2 and interleukin-12 with tumor retention domains for the treatment of solid tumors. In February 2023, we filed the IND for CLN-617 and intend to initiate a Phase 1 study by the end of 2023, pending IND clearance.

In addition to the product candidates described above, we are actively developing several preclinical oncology programs, all in the discovery stage, including our collaboration with Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai for the development of novel hematopoietic progenitor kinase 1 degraders.

Company Information

Our principal executive offices are located at One Main Street, Suite 1350, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, and our telephone number is (617) 410-4650. Our website is located at www.cullinanoncology.com. The information contained in, or that can be accessed through, our website is not incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement and should not be considered to be a part of this prospectus supplement. Our website address is included as an inactive textual reference only.

We own or have rights to trademarks, service marks and trade names that we use in connection with the operation of our business, including our corporate name, logos and website names. Other trademarks, service marks and trade names appearing in this prospectus supplement are the property of their respective owners. Solely for convenience, some of the trademarks, service marks and trade names referred to in this prospectus supplement are listed without the ® and  symbols, but we will assert, to the fullest extent under applicable law, our rights to our trademarks, service marks and trade names.

Implications of Being an Emerging Growth Company and a Smaller Reporting Company

We are an “emerging growth company” as defined in the Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act, or the JOBS Act, enacted in April 2012. As a result, we may take advantage of reduced reporting requirements that are otherwise applicable to public companies, including delaying auditor attestation of internal control over financial reporting, providing only two years of audited financial statements and related Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement and reducing executive compensation disclosures.

We will remain an emerging growth company until the earlier of (1) the last day of the fiscal year (a) following the fifth anniversary of the closing of our initial public offering, (b) in which we have total annual gross revenue of at least $1.235 billion or (c) in which we are deemed to be a large accelerated filer, which requires the market value of our common stock that is held by non-affiliates to exceed $700 million as of the prior June 30th, and (2) the date on which we have issued more than $1 billion in non-convertible debt during the prior three-year period.

We are also a “smaller reporting company,” meaning that the market value of our stock held by non-affiliates is less than $700 million and our annual revenue was less than $100 million during our most recently completed fiscal year. We may continue to be a smaller reporting company if either (i) the market value of our stock held by non-affiliates is less than $250 million or (ii) our annual revenue was less than $100 million

 

S-7


Table of Contents

during the most recently completed fiscal year and the market value of our stock held by non-affiliates is less than $700 million. If we are a smaller reporting company at the time we cease to be an emerging growth company, we may continue to rely on exemptions from certain disclosure requirements that are available to smaller reporting companies. For so long as we remain a smaller reporting company, we are permitted and intend to rely on exemptions from certain disclosure and other requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not smaller reporting companies.

 

S-8


Table of Contents

THE OFFERING

 

Common stock offered by us    Shares of our common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $125,000,000.
Common stock to be outstanding after this offering assuming the sale of all shares in this offering    Up to 56,838,852 shares, assuming sales of 11,042,403 shares of our common stock in this offering at a price of $11.32 per share, which was the closing price of our common stock on the Nasdaq Global Select Market on March 6, 2023. The actual number of shares issued will vary depending on the sales price under this offering.
Plan of Distribution    “At the market offering” that may be made from time to time through SVB Securities as sales agent. See “Plan of Distribution” on page S-13.
Use of Proceeds    We intend to use the net proceeds from this offering, if any, for working capital and general corporate purposes. See “Use of Proceeds” on page S-12.
Risk Factors    Investing in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. See “Risk Factors” beginning on page S-10 of this prospectus supplement, the “Risk Factor Summary” and “Risk Factors” sections of our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and incorporated by reference into this prospectus supplement, and other information included and incorporated by reference in this prospectus supplement for a discussion of factors you should carefully consider before deciding to invest in our securities.
Nasdaq Global Select Market symbol    “CGEM”

The number of shares of our common stock to be outstanding after this offering is based on 45,796,449 shares of our common stock outstanding as of December 31, 2022.

The number of shares of our common stock to be outstanding after this offering excludes:

 

   

9,334,280 shares of common stock issuable upon exercise of stock options outstanding as of December 31, 2022 at a weighted-average exercise price of $17.04 per share;

 

   

368,929 shares of common stock issuable upon the vesting of restricted stock units outstanding as of December 31, 2022;

 

   

2,153,760 shares of common stock available for future issuance as of December 31, 2022 under our 2021 Stock Option and Incentive Plan, or the Stock Plan, 2,289,822 additional shares of common stock that became available under our Stock Plan as of January 1, 2023, as well as any further automatic increase in the number of shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under the Stock Plan;

 

   

827,158 shares of common stock available for future issuance as of December 31, 2022 under our 2021 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, or the ESPP, 457,964 additional shares of common stock that became available under our ESPP as of January 1, 2023, as well as any further automatic increase in the number of shares of common stock reserved for future issuance under the ESPP; and

 

   

the effect of the exchange of 6,475,000 shares of common stock for 647,500 shares of Series A convertible preferred stock, which took place in January 2023 (the “2023 Preferred Stock Exchange”).

 

S-9


Table of Contents

RISK FACTORS

An investment in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. Before deciding whether to invest in our common stock, you should consider carefully the risks and uncertainties described below and under the section captioned “Risk Factors” contained in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K and other filings we make with the SEC from time to time, which are incorporated by reference herein in their entirety, together with other information in this prospectus supplement, the accompanying base prospectus, information and documents incorporated by reference herein and therein, and in any free writing prospectus that we authorize for use in connection with this offering. If any of these risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition, results of operations or cash flow could suffer materially. In such event, the trading price of our common stock could decline and you might lose all or part of your investment.

Additional Risks Related to This Offering

You may experience future dilution as a result of future equity offerings.

In order to raise additional capital, we may in the future offer additional shares of our common stock or other securities convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock at prices that may not be the same as the price per share in this offering. We may sell shares or other securities in any other offering at a price per share that is less than the price per share paid by investors in this offering, and investors purchasing shares or other securities in the future could have rights superior to existing stockholders. The price per share at which we sell additional shares of our common stock, or securities convertible or exchangeable into common stock, in future transactions may be higher or lower than the price per share paid by investors in this offering.

We have broad discretion over the use of our cash and cash equivalents, including the net proceeds we receive in this offering, and may not use them effectively.

We have not designated any portion of the net proceeds from this offering to be used for any particular purpose. Our management has broad discretion to use our cash and cash equivalents, including the net proceeds we receive in this offering, to fund our operations and could spend these funds in ways that do not improve our results of operations or enhance the value of our common stock. The failure by our management to apply these funds effectively could result in financial losses that could have a material adverse effect on our business, cause the price of our common stock to decline and delay the development of our product candidates. Pending their use to fund operations, we may invest our cash and cash equivalents in a manner that does not produce income or that loses value.

We do not intend to pay dividends in the foreseeable future.

We have never paid cash dividends on our common stock. We currently intend to retain our future earnings, if any, to finance the operation and growth of our business and currently do not plan to pay any cash dividends in the foreseeable future. As a result, only appreciation of the price of our common stock will provide a return to stockholders for the foreseeable future.

Sales of a significant number of shares of our common stock in the public markets, or the perception that such sales could occur, could depress the market price of our common stock.

Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public markets, or the perception that such sales could occur, could depress the market price of our common stock and impair our ability to raise capital through the sale of additional equity securities. Although we have agreed, subject to certain exceptions set forth in the sales agreement, to obtain the written consent of SVB Securities before we offer to sell, sell, contract to sell, grant any option to sell or otherwise dispose of any shares of common stock or securities convertible or exchangeable or exercisable for shares of common stock, or warrants or rights to purchase common stock during

 

S-10


Table of Contents

the period beginning on the fifth trading day immediately prior to the date on which a placement notice is delivered to SVB Securities and ending on the second trading date immediately following the settlement date for any shares of common stock sold pursuant to such placement notice, it is possible that we could issue and sell additional shares of our common stock in the public markets. We cannot predict the effect that future sales of our common stock would have on the market price of our common stock.

The actual number of shares we will issue and gross proceeds resulting from those sales, at any one time or in total, is uncertain.

Subject to certain limitations in the sales agreement and compliance with applicable law, we have the discretion to deliver a placement notice to SVB Securities at any time throughout the term of the sales agreement. The number of shares that are sold by SVB Securities after delivering a placement notice will fluctuate based on the market price of our common stock during the sales period and limits we set with SVB Securities in any instruction to sell shares, and the demand for our common stock during the sales period. Because the price per share of each share sold will fluctuate based on the market price of our common stock during the sales period, it is not possible at this stage to predict the number of shares or the gross proceeds to be raised in connection with those sales, if any, that will be ultimately issued.

The common stock offered hereby will be sold in “at the market offerings,” and investors who buy shares at different times will likely pay different prices.

Investors who purchase shares in this offering at different times will likely pay different prices, and so may experience different outcomes in their investment results. We will have discretion, subject to market demand, to vary the timing, prices and numbers of shares sold, and there is no minimum or maximum sales price. Investors may experience a decline in the value of their shares as a result of share sales made at prices lower than the prices they paid.

 

S-11


Table of Contents

USE OF PROCEEDS

The amount of proceeds from this offering will depend upon the number of shares of our common stock sold and the market price at which they are sold. There can be no assurance that we will be able to sell any shares under or fully utilize the sales agreement as a source of financing. We intend to use the net proceeds, if any, from this offering for in-licensing of product candidate rights, research and development costs, including the conduct of our clinical trials and process development and manufacturing of our product candidates, working capital and general corporate purposes, which may include the acquisition of companies or businesses, repayment and refinancing of debt, working capital and capital expenditures. We may temporarily invest the net proceeds in a variety of capital preservation instruments, including investment grade, interest bearing instruments and U.S. government securities, until they are used for their stated purpose. Amounts and timing of our actual expenditures will depend on numerous factors, including our development and commercialization efforts, as well as the amount of cash used in our operations. We therefore cannot estimate with certainty the amount of net proceeds to be used for the purposes described above. As a result, management will retain broad discretion over the allocation of the net proceeds of any offering.

 

S-12


Table of Contents

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

We entered into a sales agreement with SVB Securities under which we may offer and sell from time to time shares of our common stock through SVB Securities acting as sales agent. Pursuant to this prospectus supplement, we may offer and sell up to an aggregate of $125,000,000 of our common stock. Sales of our common stock, if any, will be made at market prices by any method that is deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415(a)(4) under the Securities Act.

SVB Securities will offer our common stock subject to the terms and conditions of the sales agreement on a daily basis or as otherwise agreed upon by us and SVB Securities. We will designate the maximum number or amount of common stock to be sold through SVB Securities on a daily basis or otherwise determine such maximum number or amount together with SVB Securities. Subject to the terms and conditions of the sales agreement, SVB Securities will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices to sell on our behalf all of the common stock requested to be sold by us. We may instruct SVB Securities not to sell common stock if the sales cannot be effected at or above a minimum price designated by us in any such instruction. SVB Securities or we may suspend the offering of our common stock being made through SVB Securities under the sales agreement upon proper notice to the other party. SVB Securities and we each have the right, by giving written notice as specified in the sales agreement, to terminate the sales agreement in each party’s sole discretion at any time. The offering of our common stock pursuant to the sales agreement will otherwise terminate upon the termination of the sales agreement as provided therein.

The aggregate compensation payable to SVB Securities is up to 3.0% of the aggregate gross sales price of the shares sold through it pursuant to the sales agreement. We have also agreed to reimburse SVB Securities for certain actual outside legal expenses incurred by SVB Securities in connection with this offering including SVB Securities’ counsel fees in an amount up to $75,000, plus certain additional amounts in connection with each diligence bring-down thereafter. We estimate that the total expenses of the offering payable by us, excluding any commissions or expense reimbursement payable to SVB Securities under the sales agreement, will be approximately $416,570.

The remaining sales proceeds, after deducting any expenses payable by us and any transaction fees imposed by any governmental, regulatory or self-regulatory organization in connection with the sales of our common stock, will equal our net proceeds for the sale of such common stock.

SVB Securities will provide written confirmation to us no later than the next succeeding trading day on The Nasdaq Global Select Market after each day on which common stock is sold through it as sales agent under the sales agreement. Each confirmation will include the number of shares of common stock sold through it as sales agent on that day, the volume-weighted average price of the shares sold, the percentage of the daily trading volume and the net proceeds to us from such sales.

We will report at least quarterly the number of shares of common stock sold through SVB Securities under the sales agreement, the net proceeds to us and the compensation paid by us to SVB Securities in connection with the sales of common stock during the relevant period. Settlement for sales of common stock will occur, unless the parties agree otherwise, on the second business day that is also a trading day following the date on which any sales were made in return for payment of the net proceeds to us. There is no arrangement for funds to be received in an escrow, trust or similar arrangement.

In connection with the sale of our common stock on our behalf pursuant to the sales agreement, SVB Securities will be deemed to be an “underwriter” within the meaning of the Securities Act and the compensation paid to SVB Securities will be deemed to be an underwriting commission or discount. We have agreed in the sales agreement to provide indemnification and contribution to SVB Securities with respect to certain liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act or the Exchange Act. As sales agent, SVB Securities will not engage in any transactions that stabilize our common stock.

 

S-13


Table of Contents

SVB Securities and/or its affiliates have provided, and may in the future provide various investment banking, commercial banking, financial advisory and other financial services for us and our affiliates, for which services they have received, and may in the future receive, customary fees.

 

S-14


Table of Contents

LEGAL MATTERS

The validity of the issuance of the common stock offered by this prospectus supplement will be passed upon for us by Ropes & Gray LLP, Boston, Massachusetts. SVB Securities is being represented in connection with this offering by Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP, New York, New York.

EXPERTS

The consolidated financial statements of Cullinan Oncology, Inc. as of December 31, 2022 and 2021, and for the years then ended, have been incorporated by reference herein and in the registration statement in reliance upon the report of KPMG LLP, independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated by reference herein, and upon the authority of said firm as experts in accounting and auditing.

 

S-15


Table of Contents

 

 

 

LOGO

Up to $125,000,000

Common Stock

 

 

PROSPECTUS SUPPLEMENT

 

 

SVB Securities

            , 2023

 

 

 


Table of Contents

PART II

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

Item 14. Other Expenses of Issuance and Distribution.

Set forth below are estimates (except in the case of the SEC registration fee and FINRA filing fee) of the amount of fees and expenses to be incurred in connection with the issuance and distribution of the offered securities, other than underwriting discounts and commissions.

 

SEC registration fee

   $  38,570  

FINRA filing fee

   $  53,000  

Printing and engraving

     (1) 

Accounting services

     (1) 

Legal fees of registrant’s counsel

     (1) 

Transfer agent’s, trustee’s and depositary’s fees and expenses

     (1) 

Miscellaneous

     (1) 

Total

   $   (1) 

 

(1)

These fees and expenses are calculated based on the securities offered and the number of issuances and accordingly are not estimated at this time and will be reflected in the applicable prospectus supplement.

Item 15. Indemnification of Directors and Officers.

Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, or the DGCL, authorizes a corporation to indemnify its directors and officers against liabilities arising out of actions, suits and proceedings to which they are made or threatened to be made a party by reason of the fact that they have served or are currently serving as a director or officer to a corporation. The indemnity may cover expenses (including attorneys’ fees) judgments, fines and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by the director or officer in connection with any such action, suit or proceeding. Section 145 permits corporations to pay expenses (including attorneys’ fees) incurred by directors and officers in advance of the final disposition of such action, suit or proceeding. In addition, Section 145 provides that a corporation has the power to purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of its directors and officers against any liability asserted against them and incurred by them in their capacity as a director or officer, or arising out of their status as such, whether or not the corporation would have the power to indemnify the director or officer against such liability under Section 145.

Certain provisions in our Second Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation, as amended, or our certificate of incorporation, and our Second Amended and Restated Bylaws, or our bylaws limit or eliminate the personal liability of our directors to the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL, as it now exists or may in the future be amended. Consequently, a director will not be personally liable to us or our stockholders for monetary damages or breach of fiduciary duty as a director, except for liability for:

 

   

any breach of the director’s duty of loyalty to us or our stockholders;

 

   

any act or omission not in good faith or that involves intentional misconduct or a knowing violation of law;

 

   

any unlawful payments related to dividends or unlawful stock purchases, redemptions or other distributions; or

 

   

any transaction from which the director derived an improper personal benefit.

These limitations of liability do not alter director liability under the federal securities laws and do not affect the availability of equitable remedies such as an injunction or rescission.

 

II-1


Table of Contents

In addition, our bylaws provide that:

 

   

we will indemnify our directors, officers and, in the discretion of our board of directors, certain employees to the fullest extent permitted by the DGCL, as it now exists or may in the future be amended; and

 

   

we will advance reasonable expenses, including attorneys’ fees, to our directors and, in the discretion of our board of directors, to our officers and certain employees, in connection with legal proceedings relating to their service for or on behalf of us, subject to limited exceptions.

We have entered into indemnification agreements with each of our directors and executive officers. These agreements provide that we will indemnify each of our directors, certain of our executive officers and, at times, their affiliates to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law. We will advance expenses, including attorneys’ fees (but excluding judgments, fines and settlement amounts), to each indemnified director or executive officer in connection with any proceeding in which indemnification is available and we will indemnify our directors and officers for any action or proceeding arising out of that person’s services as a director or officer brought on behalf of us or in furtherance of our rights. Additionally, certain of our directors or officers may have certain rights to indemnification, advancement of expenses or insurance provided by their affiliates or other third parties, which indemnification relates to and might apply to the same proceedings arising out of such director’s or officer’s services as a director referenced herein. Nonetheless, we have agreed in the indemnification agreements that our obligations to those same directors or officers are primary and any obligation of such affiliates or other third parties to advance expenses or to provide indemnification for the expenses or liabilities incurred by those directors are secondary.

We also maintain general liability insurance which covers certain liabilities of our directors and officers arising out of claims based on acts or omissions in their capacities as directors or officers, including liabilities under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or the Securities Act.

The underwriting agreement we entered into in connection with our initial public offering on January 7, 2021 with the underwriters for that offering provides that the underwriters will indemnify, under certain conditions, our directors and officers against certain liabilities under the Securities Act and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

Item 16. Exhibits.

Exhibit Index

 

Exhibit No.   

Description

    1.1*    Form of Underwriting Agreement
    1.2    Sales Agreement by and between the Registrant and SVB Securities LLC, dated as of March 9, 2023.
    4.1    Specimen Common Stock Certificate (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 of the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1 (File No. 333-251512) filed with the SEC on December 28, 2020).
    4.2*    Form of Preferred Stock Certificate
    4.3    Form of Indenture
    4.4*    Form of Debt Security
    4.5*    Form of Deposit Agreement
    4.6*    Form of Warrant Agreement

 

II-2


Table of Contents
Exhibit No.   

Description

    4.7*    Form of Subscription Rights Agreement
    4.8*    Form of Purchase Contract Agreement
    4.8*    Form of Unit Agreement
    5.1    Opinion of Ropes & Gray LLP
    5.2    Opinion of Ropes & Gray LLP
  23.1    Consent of KPMG LLP, independent registered public accounting firm for the Registrant
  23.2    Consent of Ropes & Gray LLP (included in Exhibit 5.1)
  23.3    Consent of Ropes & Gray LLP (included in Exhibit 5.2)
  24    Powers of Attorney (included in the signature pages to the Registration Statement)
  25.1**    Statement of Eligibility on Form T-1 under the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, of the Trustee under the Indenture
107    Filing Fee Table

 

*

To be filed by amendment or by a Current Report on Form 8-K.

**

To be filed pursuant to Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act of 1939.

Item 17. Undertakings.

The undersigned Registrant hereby undertakes:

(a)(1) To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

 

  (i)

to include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”);

 

  (ii)

to reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of this registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in this registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20 percent change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and

 

  (iii)

to include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in this registration statement or any material change to such information in this registration statement;

provided, however, that paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (a)(1)(ii) and (a)(1)(iii) do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by the Registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”), that are incorporated by reference in this registration statement, or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of this registration statement.

 

II-3


Table of Contents
  (2)

That, for the purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at the time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

  (3)

To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

 

  (4)

That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act to any purchaser:

 

  (i)

each prospectus filed by the Registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

 

  (ii)

each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424(b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii) or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date such form of prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof;. provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date.

 

  (5)

That, for the purpose of determining liability of the Registrant under the Securities Act to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities, the undersigned Registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned Registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned Registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

 

  (i)

any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned Registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

 

  (ii)

any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned Registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned Registrant;

 

  (iii)

the portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned Registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned Registrant; and

 

  (iv)

any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned Registrant to the purchaser.

 

  (6)

That, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act:

 

  (i)

the information omitted from the form of prospectus filed as part of the registration statement in reliance upon Rule 430A and contained in the form of prospectus filed by the Registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(1) or (4) or 497(h) under the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of the registration statement as of the time it was declared effective; and

 

II-4


Table of Contents
  (ii)

each post-effective amendment that contains a form of prospectus shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

  (b)

The undersigned Registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each filing of the Registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or 15(d) of the Exchange Act (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act) that is incorporated by reference in this registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

  (c)

The undersigned Registrant hereby undertakes to file an application for the purpose of determining the eligibility of the trustee to act under subsection (a) of Section 310 of the Trust Indenture Act in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed by the Commission under Section 305(b)(2) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

  (d)

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the Registrant pursuant to the indemnification provisions described herein, or otherwise, the Registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the Registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the Registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the Registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

II-5


Table of Contents

SIGNATURES

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the Registrant certifies that it has reasonable grounds to believe that it meets all of the requirements for filing on Form S-3 and has duly caused this Registration Statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in the city of Cambridge, Commonwealth of Massachusetts, on March 9, 2023.

 

CULLINAN ONCOLOGY, INC.
By:   /s/ Nadim Ahmed
  Name: Nadim Ahmed
  Title: President and Chief Executive Officer

SIGNATURES AND POWER OF ATTORNEY

We, the undersigned officers and directors of Cullinan Oncology, Inc. hereby severally constitute and appoint Nadim Ahmed and Jeffrey Trigilio, and each of them singly, our true and lawful attorneys-in-fact with full power to any of them, and to each of them singly, to sign for us and in our names in the capacities indicated below the Registration Statement on Form S-3 filed herewith and any and all amendments (including post-effective amendments) to said Registration Statement, and any registration statement filed pursuant to Rule 462 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, in connection with said Registration Statement, and to file or cause to be filed the same, with all exhibits thereto and other documents in connection therewith, with the Securities and Exchange Commission, and generally to do all such things in our name and on our behalf in our capacities as officers and directors to enable Cullinan Oncology, Inc. to comply with the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and all requirements of the Securities and Exchange Commission, hereby ratifying and confirming all that said attorneys, and each of them, or their substitute or substitutes, shall do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this Registration Statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

 

Signature

  

Title

 

Date

/s/ Nadim Ahmed

Nadim Ahmed

   President and Chief Executive Officer, and Director (Principal Executive Officer)   March 9, 2023

/s/ Jeffrey Trigilio

Jeffrey Trigilio

   Chief Financial Officer (Principal Financial and Accounting Officer)   March 9, 2023

/s/ Thomas Ebeling

Thomas Ebeling

   Director   March 9, 2023

/s/ Anne-Marie Martin

Anne-Marie Martin

   Director   March 9, 2023

/s/ Anthony Rosenberg

Anthony Rosenberg

   Director   March 9, 2023

/s/ David P. Ryan, M.D.

David P. Ryan, M.D.

   Director   March 9, 2023

/s/ Stephen Webster

Stephen Webster

   Director   March 9, 2023

 

II-6

EX-1.2

Exhibit 1.2

CULLINAN ONCOLOGY, INC.

Shares of Common Stock

($0.0001 par value per share)

SALES AGREEMENT

March 9, 2023

SVB SECURITIES LLC

53 State Street, 40th Floor

Boston, MA 02109

Ladies and Gentlemen:

Cullinan Oncology, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), confirms its agreement (this “Agreement”) with SVB Securities LLC (the “Agent”), as follows:

1. Issuance and Sale of Shares. The Company agrees that, from time to time during the term of this Agreement, on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein, it may issue and sell through the Agent up to $125,000,000 of shares of common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, of the Company (the “Common Stock”), subject to the limitations set forth in Section 5(c) (the “Placement Shares”). Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained herein, the parties hereto agree that compliance with the limitation set forth in this Section 1 on the aggregate gross sales price of Placement Shares that may be issued and sold under this Agreement from time to time shall be the sole responsibility of the Company, and that the Agent shall have no obligation in connection with such compliance. The issuance and sale of Placement Shares through the Agent will be effected pursuant to the Registration Statement (as defined below) to be filed by the Company with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”) and to be declared effective by the Commission, although nothing in this Agreement shall be construed as requiring the Company to issue any Placement Shares.

The Company has prepared and will file, in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (collectively, the “Securities Act”), with the Commission a registration statement on Form S-3, including (a) a base prospectus, relating to certain securities, including the Common Stock, to be issued from time to time by the Company, and which incorporates by reference documents that the Company has filed or will file in accordance with the provisions of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (collectively, the “Exchange Act”), and (b) a prospectus supplement specifically relating to the Placement Shares to be issued from time to time pursuant to this Agreement (the “Prospectus Supplement”) to the base prospectus included as part of such registration statement. The Company will furnish to the Agent, for use by the Agent, copies of the base prospectus included as part of such registration statement at the time it becomes effective, as supplemented by the Prospectus Supplement. Except where the context otherwise requires, such registration statement, including all documents filed as part thereof or incorporated by reference therein, and including any information contained in a Prospectus (as defined below) subsequently filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act or deemed to be a part of such registration statement pursuant to Rule 430B or Rule 462(b) under the


Securities Act, is herein called the “Registration Statement.” The base prospectus, including all documents incorporated therein by reference, included in the Registration Statement, as it may be supplemented by the Prospectus Supplement, in the form in which such prospectus and/or Prospectus Supplement have most recently been filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act, together with any “issuer free writing prospectus” (as used herein, as defined in Rule 433 under the Securities Act (“Rule 433”)), relating to the Placement Shares that (i) is required to be filed with the Commission by the Company or (ii) is exempt from filing pursuant to Rule 433(d)(5)(i), in each case, in the form filed or required to be filed with the Commission or, if not required to be filed, in the form retained in the Company’s records pursuant to Rule 433(g), is herein called the “Prospectus.”

Any reference herein to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus Supplement, the Prospectus or any issuer free writing prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the documents, if any, that are or are deemed to be incorporated by reference therein (the “Incorporated Documents”), including, unless the context otherwise requires, the documents, if any, filed as exhibits to such Incorporated Documents. Any reference herein to the terms “amend,” “amendment” or “supplement” with respect to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus Supplement, the Prospectus or any issuer free writing prospectus shall be deemed to refer to and include the filing of any document under the Exchange Act on or after the most-recent effective date of the Registration Statement, or the respective dates of the Prospectus Supplement, Prospectus or such issuer free writing prospectus, as the case may be, and incorporated therein by reference. For purposes of this Agreement, all references to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto shall be deemed to include the most recent copy filed with the Commission pursuant to its Electronic Data Gathering Analysis and Retrieval System or, if applicable, the Interactive Data Electronic Application system when used by the Commission (collectively, “EDGAR”).

2. Placements. Each time that the Company wishes to issue and sell any Placement Shares through the Agent hereunder (each, a “Placement”), it will notify the Agent by email notice (or other method mutually agreed to in writing by the parties) (each such notice, a “Placement Notice”) containing the parameters in accordance with which it desires such Placement Shares to be sold, which at a minimum shall include the maximum number or amount of Placement Shares to be sold, the time period during which sales are requested to be made, any limitation on the number or amount of Placement Shares that may be sold in any one Trading Day (as defined in Section 3) and any minimum price below which sales may not be made, a form of which containing such minimum sales parameters is attached hereto as Schedule 1. The Placement Notice must originate from one of the individuals authorized to act on behalf of the Company and set forth on Schedule 2 (with a copy to each of the other individuals from the Company listed on such Schedule 2), and shall be addressed to each of the recipients from the Agent set forth on Schedule 2, as such Schedule 2 may be updated by either party from time to time by sending a written notice containing a revised Schedule 2 to the other party in the manner provided in Section 12 (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the Company set forth on Schedule 2, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply). The Placement Notice shall be effective upon receipt by the Agent unless and until (i) in accordance with the notice requirements set forth in Section 4, the Agent declines to accept the terms contained therein for any reason, in its sole discretion, within two Trading Days of the date the Agent receives the Placement Notice, (ii) in accordance with the notice requirements set forth in Section 4, the Agent suspends sales under the Placement Notice for any reason in its sole discretion, (iii) the entire amount of the Placement Shares has been sold pursuant to this Agreement, (iv) in accordance with the notice requirements set forth in Section 4, the Company suspends sales under or terminates the Placement Notice for any reason in its sole discretion, (v) the Company issues a subsequent Placement Notice and explicitly indicates that its parameters supersede those contained in the earlier dated Placement Notice or (vi) this Agreement has been terminated pursuant to the provisions of Section 11. The amount of any discount, commission or other compensation to be paid by the Company to the Agent in connection with

 

2


the sale of the Placement Shares effected through the Agent shall be calculated in accordance with the terms set forth in Schedule 3. It is expressly acknowledged and agreed that neither the Company nor the Agent will have any obligation whatsoever with respect to a Placement or any Placement Shares unless and until the Company delivers a Placement Notice to the Agent and the Agent does not decline such Placement Notice pursuant to the terms set forth above, and then only upon the terms specified therein and herein. In the event of a conflict between the terms of this Agreement and the terms of a Placement Notice, the terms of the Placement Notice will control with respect to the matters covered thereby.

3. Sale of Placement Shares by the Agent. On the basis of the representations and warranties herein contained and subject to the terms and conditions herein set forth, including Section 5(c), upon the Agent’s acceptance of the terms of a Placement Notice as provided in Section 2, and unless the sale of the Placement Shares described therein has been declined, suspended or otherwise terminated in accordance with the terms of this Agreement, the Agent, for the period specified in the Placement Notice, will use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable state and federal laws, rules and regulations and the rules of the Nasdaq Global Select Market (“Nasdaq”) to sell such Placement Shares up to the number or amount specified in, and otherwise in accordance with the terms of, such Placement Notice. The Agent will provide written confirmation to the Company (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the Company set forth on Schedule 2, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply) no later than the opening of the Trading Day (as defined below) immediately following the Trading Day on which it has made sales of Placement Shares hereunder setting forth the number or amount of Placement Shares sold on such Trading Day, the volume-weighted average price of the Placement Shares sold and the Net Proceeds (as defined below) payable to the Company. Unless otherwise specified by the Company in a Placement Notice, the Agent may sell Placement Shares by any method permitted by law deemed to be an “at the market offering” as defined in Rule 415 of the Securities Act, including sales made directly on or through Nasdaq, on or through any other existing trading market for the Common Stock or to or through a market maker. If expressly authorized by the Company (including in a Placement Notice), the Agent may also sell Placement Shares in negotiated transactions. Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 6(qq), except as may be otherwise agreed by the Company and the Agent, the Agent shall not purchase Placement Shares on a principal basis pursuant to this Agreement unless the Company and the Agent enter into a separate written agreement setting forth the terms of such sale. The Company acknowledges and agrees that (i) there can be no assurance that the Agent will be successful in selling Placement Shares, (ii) the Agent will incur no liability or obligation to the Company or any other person or entity if it does not sell Placement Shares for any reason other than a failure by the Agent to use its commercially reasonable efforts consistent with its normal trading and sales practices and applicable state and federal laws, rules and regulations and the rules of Nasdaq to sell such Placement Shares as required under this Agreement and (iii) the Agent shall be under no obligation to purchase Placement Shares on a principal basis pursuant to this Agreement unless the Company and the Agent enter into a separate written agreement setting forth the terms of such sale. For the purposes hereof, “Trading Day” means any day on which the Common Stock is purchased and sold on Nasdaq.

4. Suspension of Sales.

(a) The Company or the Agent may, upon notice to the other party in writing (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 2, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply) or by telephone (confirmed immediately by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 2), suspend any sale of Placement Shares; provided, however, that such suspension shall not affect or impair either party’s obligations with respect to any Placement Shares sold hereunder prior to the receipt of such notice. Each of the parties agrees that no such

 

3


notice under this Section 4 shall be effective against the other party unless notice is sent by one of the individuals named on Schedule 2 hereto to the other party in writing (including by email correspondence to each of the individuals of the other party set forth on Schedule 2, if receipt of such correspondence is actually acknowledged by any of the individuals to whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply).

(b) Notwithstanding any other provision of this Agreement, during any period in which the Company is, or could be deemed to be, in possession of material non-public information, the Company and the Agent agree that (i) no sale of Placement Shares will take place, (ii) the Company shall not request the sale of any Placement Shares and shall cancel any effective Placement Notices instructing the Agent to make any sales and (iii) the Agent shall not be obligated to sell or offer to sell any Placement Shares.

5. Settlement and Delivery of the Placement Shares.

(a) Settlement of Placement Shares. Unless otherwise specified in the applicable Placement Notice, settlement for sales of Placement Shares will occur on the second Trading Day (or such earlier day as is industry practice or as is required for regular-way trading) following the date on which such sales are made (each, a “Settlement Date”). The amount of proceeds to be delivered to the Company on a Settlement Date against receipt of the Placement Shares sold (the “Net Proceeds”) will be equal to the aggregate gross sales price received by the Agent at which such Placement Shares were sold, after deduction of (i) the Agent’s commission, discount or other compensation for such sales payable by the Company pursuant to Section 2 hereof, (ii) any other amounts due and payable by the Company to the Agent hereunder pursuant to Section 7(g) hereof and (iii) any transaction fees imposed by any governmental or self-regulatory organization in respect of such sales.

(b) Delivery of Placement Shares. On or before each Settlement Date, the Company will issue the Placement Shares being sold on such date and will, or will cause its transfer agent to, electronically transfer such Placement Shares by crediting the Agent’s or its designee’s account (provided the Agent shall have given the Company written notice of such designee prior to the Settlement Date) at The Depository Trust Company through its Deposit and Withdrawal at Custodian System (“DWAC”) or by such other means of delivery as may be mutually agreed upon by the parties hereto, which in all cases shall be duly authorized, freely tradeable, transferable, registered shares of Common Stock in good deliverable form. On each Settlement Date, the Agent will deliver the related Net Proceeds in same day funds to an account designated by the Company on or prior to the Settlement Date. The Agent shall be responsible for providing DWAC instructions or other instructions for delivery by other means with regard to the transfer of the Placement Shares being sold. In addition to and in no way limiting the rights and obligations set forth in Section 9(a) hereto, the Company agrees that if the Company or its transfer agent (if applicable), defaults in its obligation to deliver duly authorized, freely tradeable, transferable, registered Placement Shares in good deliverable form by 2:30 P.M., New York City time, on a Settlement Date (other than as a result of a failure by the Agent to provide instructions for delivery), the Company will (i) take all necessary action to cause the full amount of any Net Proceeds that were delivered to the Company’s account with respect to such settlement, together with any costs incurred by the Agent and/or its clearing firm in connection with recovering such Net Proceeds, to be immediately returned to the Agent or its clearing firm no later than 5:00 P.M., New York City time, on such Settlement Date, by wire transfer of immediately available funds to an account designated by the Agent or its clearing firm, (ii) indemnify and hold the Agent and its clearing firm harmless against any loss, claim, damage, or expense (including reasonable legal fees and expenses), as incurred, arising out of or in connection with such default by the Company or its transfer agent (if applicable) and (iii) pay to the Agent any commission, discount or other compensation to which it would otherwise have been entitled absent such default. Certificates for the Placement Shares, if any, shall be in such denominations and registered in such names as the Agent may request in writing one Business Day (as defined below) before the applicable Settlement Date. Certificates for the Placement Shares, if any, will be made available by the Company for examination and packaging by the Agent in New York City not later than 12:00 P.M., New York City time, on the Business Day prior to the applicable Settlement Date.

 

4


(c) Limitations on Offering Size. Under no circumstances shall the Company cause or request the offer or sale of any Placement Shares if, after giving effect to the sale of such Placement Shares, the aggregate number or gross sales proceeds of Placement Shares sold pursuant to this Agreement would exceed the lesser of: (i) the number or dollar amount of shares of Common Stock registered pursuant to, and available for offer and sale under, the Registration Statement pursuant to which the offering of Placement Shares is being made, (ii) the number of authorized but unissued shares of Common Stock of the Company (less shares of Common Stock issuable upon exercise, conversion or exchange of any outstanding securities of the Company or otherwise reserved from the Company’s authorized capital stock), (iii) the number or dollar amount of shares of Common Stock permitted to be offered and sold by the Company under Form S-3 (including General Instruction I.B.6. thereof, if such instruction is applicable), (iv) the number or dollar amount of shares of Common Stock that the Company’s board of directors or a duly authorized committee thereof is authorized to issue and sell from time to time, and notified to the Agent in writing, or (v) the dollar amount of shares of Common Stock for which the Company has filed the Prospectus Supplement. Under no circumstances shall the Company cause or request the offer or sale of any Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement at a price lower than the minimum price authorized from time to time by the Company’s board of directors or a duly authorized committee thereof, and notified to the Agent in writing. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary contained herein, the parties hereto acknowledge and agree that compliance with the limitations set forth in this Section 5(c) on the number or dollar amount of Placement Shares that may be issued and sold under this Agreement from time to time shall be the sole responsibility of the Company, and that the Agent shall have no obligation in connection with such compliance.

6. Representations and Warranties of the Company. The Company represents and warrants to, and agrees with, the Agent that as of the date of this Agreement, and as of (i) each Representation Date (as defined in Section 7(m)), (ii) each date on which a Placement Notice is given, (iii) the date and time of each sale of any Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement and (iv) each Settlement Date (each such time or date referred to in clauses (i) through (iv), an “Applicable Time”):

(a) The Company and the transactions contemplated by this Agreement meet the requirements for and comply with the conditions for the use of Form S-3 (including General Instructions I.A and I.B.1.) under the Securities Act. The Registration Statement will be filed with the Commission and will be declared effective by the Commission under the Securities Act prior to the issuance of any Placement Notices by the Company. At the time the Registration Statement originally becomes or became effective and at the time the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2022, was filed with the Commission, the Company met the then-applicable requirements for use of Form S-3 (including General Instructions I.A and I.B.1.) under the Securities Act. The Registration Statement meets, and the offering and sale of Placement Shares as contemplated hereby comply with, the requirements of Rule 415(a)(1)(x) under the Securities Act. The Agent is named as the agent engaged by the Company in the section entitled “Plan of Distribution” in the Prospectus Supplement. The Company has not received, and has no notice from the Commission of, any notice pursuant to Rule 401(g)(1) under the Securities Act objecting to the use of the shelf registration statement form. No stop order of the Commission preventing or suspending the use of the base prospectus, the Prospectus Supplement or the Prospectus, or the effectiveness of the Registration Statement, has been issued, and no proceedings for such purpose are pending before or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened by the Commission. At the time of the initial filing of the Registration Statement, the Company paid the required Commission filing fees relating to the securities covered by the Registration Statement, including the Placement Shares, in accordance with Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act. Copies of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus, any such amendments or supplements to any of the foregoing and all Incorporated Documents that were filed with the Commission on or prior to the date of this Agreement have been delivered, or are available through EDGAR, to the Agent and its counsel.

 

5


(b) Each of the Registration Statement and any post-effective amendment thereto, at the time it became or becomes effective, at each deemed effective date with respect to the Agent pursuant to Rule 430B(f)(2) under the Securities Act and as of each Applicable Time, complied, complies and will comply in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act and did not, does not and will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading, except that the representations and warranties set forth in this sentence do not apply to Agent’s Information (as defined below). The Prospectus and any amendment or supplement thereto, when so filed with the Commission under Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act, complied, complies and as of each Applicable Time will comply in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act, and each Prospectus Supplement, Prospectus or issuer free writing prospectus (or any amendments or supplements to any of the foregoing) furnished to the Agent for use in connection with the offering of the Placement Shares was identical to the electronically transmitted copies thereof filed with the Commission pursuant to EDGAR, except to the extent permitted by Regulation S-T. Neither the Prospectus nor any amendment or supplement thereto, as of its date and as of each Applicable Time, included, includes or will include an untrue statement of a material fact or omitted, omits or will omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading, except that the representations and warranties set forth in this sentence do not apply to Agent’s Information. Each Incorporated Document heretofore filed, when it was filed (or, if any amendment with respect to any such document was filed, when such amendment was filed), conformed in all material respects with the requirements of the Exchange Act and were filed on a timely basis with the Commission, and any further Incorporated Documents so filed and incorporated after the date of this Agreement will be filed on a timely basis and, when so filed, will conform in all material respects with the requirements of the Exchange Act; no such Incorporated Document when it was filed (or, if an amendment with respect to any such document was filed, when such amendment was filed), contained an untrue statement of a material fact or omitted to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading; and no such Incorporated Document, when it is filed, will contain an untrue statement of a material fact or will omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary in order to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

(c) (i) At the time of filing the Registration Statement and (ii) at the time of the execution of this Agreement (with such date being used as the determination date for purposes of this clause (ii)), the Company was not and is not an “ineligible issuer” (as defined in Rule 405), without taking account of any determination by the Commission pursuant to Rule 405 that it is not necessary that the Company be considered an ineligible issuer.

(d) The Company is an “emerging growth company,” as defined in Section 2(a) of the Securities Act (an “Emerging Growth Company”).

(e) Each issuer free writing prospectus, as of its issue date and as of each Applicable Time, did not, does not and will not include any information that conflicted, conflicts or will conflict with the information contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, including any Incorporated Document deemed to be a part thereof that has not been superseded or modified. Each issuer free writing prospectus that the Company has filed, or is required to file, pursuant to Rule 433 or that was prepared by or on behalf of or used by the Company complies or will comply in all material respects with the requirements of the Securities Act.

 

6


(f) The Company has not distributed and, prior to the later to occur of each Settlement Date and completion of the Agent’s distribution of the Placement Shares under this Agreement, will not distribute any offering material in connection with the offering and sale of the Placement Shares other than the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus (as defined below).

(g) The interactive data in eXtensible Business Reporting Language included or incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus fairly presents the information called for in all material respects and has been prepared in accordance with the Commission’s rules and guidelines applicable thereto.

(h) The Company is subject to and in compliance in all material respects with the reporting requirements of Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act. The Common Stock is registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Exchange Act and is listed on Nasdaq, and the Company has taken no action designed to, or reasonably likely to have the effect of, terminating the registration of the Common Stock under the Exchange Act or delisting the Common Stock from Nasdaq, nor has the Company received any notification that the Commission or Nasdaq is contemplating terminating such registration or listing. The Company is in compliance with the current listing standards of Nasdaq. The Company has filed a Notification of Listing of Additional Shares with Nasdaq with respect to the Placement Shares.

(i) No person (as such term is defined in Rule 1-02 of Regulation S-X promulgated under the Securities Act) has the right to act as an underwriter or as a financial advisor to the Company in connection with the offer and sale of the Placement Shares hereunder, whether as a result of the filing or effectiveness of the Registration Statement or the sale of the Placement Shares as contemplated hereby or otherwise. Except for the Agent, there is no broker, finder or other party that is entitled to receive from the Company or any of its Subsidiaries (as defined below) any brokerage or finder’s fee or other fee or commission as a result of any transactions contemplated by this Agreement.

(j) The Company has been duly incorporated, is validly existing as a corporation in good standing under the laws of the jurisdiction of its incorporation, has the corporate power and authority to own or lease its property and to conduct its business as described in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and is duly qualified to transact business and is in good standing in each jurisdiction in which the conduct of its business or its ownership or leasing of property requires such qualification, except to the extent that the failure to be so qualified or be in good standing would not, singly or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a material adverse effect on the condition (financial or otherwise), earnings, results of operations, business, properties, operations, assets, liabilities or prospects of the Company and its Subsidiaries, taken as a whole, whether or not arising from transactions in the ordinary course of business (a “Material Adverse Effect”).

(k) Each of the Company’s “subsidiaries” (for purposes of this Agreement, as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act) (each, a “Subsidiary” and collectively, the “Subsidiaries”) has been duly incorporated, organized or formed, is validly existing as a corporation or other business entity in good standing under the laws of the jurisdiction of its incorporation, organization or formation (to the extent the concept of good standing is applicable in such jurisdiction), has the corporate or other business entity power and authority to own or lease its property and to conduct its business as described in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and is duly qualified to transact business and is in good standing in each jurisdiction (to the extent the concept of good standing is applicable in such jurisdiction) in which the conduct of its business or its ownership or leasing of property requires such qualification, except to the extent that the failure to be so qualified or be in good standing would not singly or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect; all of the issued shares of capital stock of each Subsidiary have been duly and validly authorized and issued, are fully paid and non-

 

7


assessable (to the extent the concept of good standing is applicable in such jurisdiction) and are owned directly or indirectly by the Company, free and clear of all liens, encumbrances, equities or claims. The Company does not own or control, directly or indirectly, any corporation, association or other entity, other than the Subsidiaries listed on Exhibit 21.1 to the Company’s most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the Commission. No Subsidiary is prohibited or restricted, directly or indirectly, from paying dividends to the Company, from making any other distribution with respect to such Subsidiary’s equity securities, from repaying to the Company or any other Subsidiary any amounts that may from time to time become due under any loans or advances to such Subsidiary from the Company or from transferring any property or assets to the Company or to any other Subsidiary.

(l) The Company has the authorized and outstanding capitalization as set forth in the Company’s quarterly report on Form 10-Q for the most recent fiscal quarter, as of the dates referred to therein (subject, in each case, to the issuance of Placement Shares under this Agreement, the issuance of shares of Common Stock upon exercise of share options and warrants disclosed as outstanding as of the date hereof in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and the grant of options under existing share option plans described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus). The Common Stock conforms in all material respects to the description thereof contained in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, including under the heading “Description of Capital Stock.” All of the issued and outstanding share capital or other equity or ownership interest of the Company (including the Common Stock) has been duly authorized and validly issued and is fully paid and nonassessable, has been issued in compliance with all federal, state and local securities laws and is free and clear of any security interest, mortgage, pledge, lien, encumbrance or adverse claim. None of the outstanding shares of capital stock of the Company were issued in violation of any preemptive rights, rights of first refusal or other similar rights to subscribe for or purchase securities of the Company. Except as disclosed in the Prospectus, there are no authorized or outstanding options, warrants, preemptive rights, rights of first refusal or other rights to purchase or subscribe for, or equity or debt securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for, any share capital of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries or to which the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is a party or by which any of them may be bound. The descriptions of the Company’s equity incentive plan, stock option plans and other stock plans or arrangements described in the Prospectus and in effect as of the date hereof (collectively, the “Stock Plans”) and the options or other rights granted thereunder, set forth in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus accurately and fairly present, in all material respects, the information required to be shown with respect to such Stock Plans and the options or other rights granted thereunder.

(m) The Placement Shares have been duly authorized and, when issued, delivered and paid for in accordance with the terms of this Agreement, will be validly issued, fully paid and non-assessable, and the issuance of the Placement Shares will not be subject to any preemptive or similar rights that have not been validly waived.

(n) There is no statute, regulation, contract, agreement or other document required to be described in the Registration Statement, Prospectus or in any Incorporated Document, or to be filed as an exhibit to the Registration Statement or any Incorporated Document which is not described or filed as required. The statements set forth or incorporated by reference in the Prospectus, insofar as they purport to constitute summaries of the terms of the statutes, regulations, contracts, agreements or other documents described and filed, constitute accurate summaries of the terms thereof in all material respects. The statements set forth or incorporated by reference in the Prospectus under the headings “Risk Factors,” “Business—Intellectual Property,” “Business—License Agreements,” “Business—Governmental Regulation,” “Legal Proceedings,” and “Description of Capital Stock,” insofar as such statements summarize legal matters, agreements, documents or proceedings discussed therein, are accurate and fair summaries of such legal matters, agreements, documents or proceedings. Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries has sent or received any communication regarding termination of, or intent not to renew

 

8


or render performance under, any of the contracts or agreements referred to or described in the Prospectus or any free writing prospectus, or referred to or described in, or filed as an exhibit to, the Registration Statement, or any Incorporated Document, and no such termination or non-renewal has been threatened by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries or, to the Company’s knowledge, any other party to any such contract or agreement, which threat of termination or non-renewal has not been rescinded as of the date hereof.

(o) This Agreement has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company.

(p) The Company is not, and after giving effect to the offering and sale of the Placement Shares and the application of the proceeds thereof as described in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus will not be, required to register as an “investment company” as such term is defined in the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended.

(q) The execution and delivery by the Company of, and the performance by the Company of its obligations under, this Agreement will not contravene (i) any provision of applicable law, (ii) the certificate of incorporation or by-laws of the Company, (iii) or any agreement or other instrument binding upon the Company or any of its Subsidiaries or (iv) any judgment, order or decree of any governmental body, agency or court having jurisdiction over the Company or any Subsidiary, except in the case of clauses (i), (iii) and (iv), where such contravention would not, singly or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect, and no consent, approval, authorization or order of, or qualification with, any governmental body, agency or court is required for the performance by the Company of its obligations under this Agreement, except such as have been obtained or waived or as may be required by the securities or Blue Sky laws of the various states in connection with the offer and sale of the Placement Shares.

(r) Subsequent to the respective dates as of which information is given in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, there has not occurred any material adverse change, or any development involving a prospective material adverse change, in the condition, financial or otherwise, or in the earnings, business or operations of the Company and its Subsidiaries, taken as a whole, from that set forth in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus.

(s) There are no contracts, agreements or understandings between the Company and any person granting such person the right to require the Company to file a registration statement under the Securities Act with respect to any securities of the Company or to require the Company to include such securities with the Placement Shares registered pursuant to the Registration Statement, except as otherwise have been validly waived in connection with the issuance and sale of the Placement Shares contemplated hereby and as described in the Prospectus.

(t) The financial statements included in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, together with the related schedules and notes thereto, comply as to form in all material respects with the applicable accounting requirements of the Securities Act and present fairly in all material respects the consolidated financial position of the Company and its Subsidiaries as of the dates shown and its results of operations and cash flows for the periods shown, and such financial statements have been prepared in conformity with generally accepted accounting principles in the United States (“U.S. GAAP”) applied on a consistent basis throughout the periods covered thereby except for any normal year-end adjustments in the Company’s quarterly financial statements. The other financial information included in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus has been derived from the accounting records of the Company and its consolidated Subsidiaries and presents fairly in all material respects the information shown thereby. The statistical, industry-related and market-related data included in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus are based on or derived from sources which the Company reasonably and in good faith believes are reliable and accurate and such data is consistent with the sources from which they are derived, in each case in all material respects.

 

9


(u) There are no legal or governmental proceedings pending or, to the Company’s knowledge, threatened to which the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is a party or to which any of the properties of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is subject (i) other than proceedings accurately described in all material respects in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus and proceedings that would not, singly or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect, or on the power or ability of the Company to perform its obligations under this Agreement or to consummate the transactions contemplated by each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus or (ii) that are required to be described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus and are not so described; and there are no statutes, regulations, contracts or other documents to which the Company or any of its assets is subject or by which the Company is bound that are required to be described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or to be filed as exhibits to the Registration Statement that are not described in all material respects or filed as required.

(v) Subsequent to the respective dates as of which information is given in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, (i) the Company and its Subsidiaries, taken as a whole, have not incurred any material liability or obligation, direct or contingent, nor entered into any material transaction; (ii) the Company has not purchased any of its outstanding capital stock (other than from its employees or other service providers in connection with the termination of their service pursuant to the terms of the equity compensation plans or agreements described in the Prospectus), nor declared, paid or otherwise made any dividend or distribution of any kind on its capital stock other than ordinary and customary dividends; and (iii) there has not been any material change in the capital stock, short-term debt or long-term debt of the Company and its Subsidiaries taken as a whole.

(w) Neither the Company nor any Subsidiary is in violation or default of (i) any provision of its certificate or articles of incorporation, charter, bylaws, articles of association, limited liability company agreement, certificate or agreement of limited or general partnership, or other similar organizational documents, as the case may be, of such entity, (ii) the terms of any indenture, contract, lease, mortgage, deed of trust, note agreement, loan agreement or other agreement, obligation, condition, covenant or instrument to which it is a party or bound or to which its property or assets is subject, or (iii) any statute, law, rule, regulation, judgment, order or decree of any court, regulatory body, administrative agency, governmental body, arbitrator or other authority having jurisdiction over the Company, any of its Subsidiaries or any of their respective properties or assets, as applicable, except, in the case of clauses (ii) and (iii) above, for any such default or violation that would not, individually or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect.

(x) KPMG LLP, who have certified certain financial statements of the Company and its Subsidiaries and delivered its report with respect to the audited consolidated financial statements and schedules filed with the Commission as part of the Registration Statement and included in each of the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, is an independent registered public accounting firm with respect to the Company within the meaning of the Securities Act and the applicable rules and regulations thereunder adopted by the Commission and the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (United States) (“PCAOB”)

(y) The Company and each of its Subsidiaries have filed all federal, state, local and foreign tax returns required to be filed through the date of this Agreement or have requested extensions thereof (except where the failure to file would not, singly or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect) and have paid all taxes required to be paid thereon (except for cases in which the failure to file or pay would not, singly or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect, or, except as currently being contested in

 

10


good faith and for which reserves required by U.S. GAAP have been created in the financial statements of the Company), and no tax deficiency has been determined adversely to the Company or any of its Subsidiaries which, singly or in the aggregate, has had (nor does the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries have any notice or knowledge of any tax deficiency which could reasonably be expected to be determined adversely to the Company or its Subsidiaries and which could reasonably be expected to have) a Material Adverse Effect.

(z) No material labor dispute with the employees of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries exists, or, to the knowledge of the Company, is imminent; and the Company is not aware of any existing, threatened or imminent labor disturbance by the employees of any of its principal suppliers, manufacturers or contractors that would, singly or in the aggregate, have a Material Adverse Effect.

(aa) The Company and each of its Subsidiaries are insured by insurers of recognized financial responsibility against such losses and risks and in such amounts as in the Company’s reasonable judgement are prudent and customary in the businesses in which they are engaged; neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries has been refused any insurance coverage sought or applied for; and neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries has any reason to believe that it will not be able to renew its existing insurance coverage as and when such coverage expires or to obtain similar coverage from similar insurers as may be necessary to continue its business at a cost that would not, singly or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

(bb) The Company and each of its Subsidiaries have good and marketable title in fee simple to all real property and good and marketable title to all personal property (other than intellectual property which is addressed exclusively in Section 6(mm), Section 6(yy) and Section 6(zz) below) owned by them which is material to the business of the Company and its Subsidiaries, in each case free and clear of all liens, encumbrances and defects except such as are described in the Prospectus or such as do not materially affect the value of such property and do not materially interfere with the use made and proposed to be made of such property by the Company and its Subsidiaries; and any real property and buildings held under lease by the Company and its Subsidiaries are held by them under valid, subsisting and enforceable leases with such exceptions as are not material and would not reasonably be expected to materially interfere with the use made and proposed to be made of such property and buildings by the Company and its Subsidiaries, in each case expect as described in the Prospectus.

(cc) The Company and each of its Subsidiaries possess, and are in material compliance with the terms of all certificates, licenses, permits and similar authorizations issued by the appropriate federal, state or foreign regulatory authorities necessary to conduct their respective businesses (collectively, “Permits”), as currently conducted. All Permits are in full force and effect and neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries is in violation of any term of any Permit in any material respect. Each of the Company and its Subsidiaries has fulfilled and performed all of its respective obligations with respect to the Permits in all material respects and, to the knowledge of the Company, no event has occurred which allows, or after notice or lapse of time would allow, revocation or termination thereof or results in any other impairment of the rights of the holder of any Permit. Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries has received any written notice, or to the knowledge of the Company any oral notice of proceedings relating to the revocation or modification of any such certificate, authorization or permit which, singly or in the aggregate, if the subject of an unfavorable decision, ruling or finding, would reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

(dd) The Company and each of its Subsidiaries, taken as a whole, maintain a system of internal accounting controls sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that (i) transactions are executed in accordance with management’s general or specific authorizations; (ii) transactions are recorded as necessary to permit preparation of financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP and to maintain

 

11


asset accountability; (iii) access to assets is permitted only in accordance with management’s general or specific authorization; and (iv) the recorded accountability for assets is compared with the existing assets at reasonable intervals and appropriate action is taken with respect to any differences. Since the end of the Company’s most recent audited fiscal year, there has been (i) no material weakness in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting (whether or not remediated) and (ii) no change in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.

(ee) The Company and each of its Subsidiaries have established and maintain disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Rules 13a-15 and 15d-15 under the Exchange Act), which (i) are designed to ensure that information relating to the Company, including its consolidated Subsidiaries, is made known to the Company’s principal executive officer and its principal financial officer by others within those entities, particularly during the periods in which the periodic reports required under the Exchange Act are being prepared; (ii) have been evaluated by management of the Company for effectiveness as of the end of the Company’s most recent fiscal quarter; and (iii) are effective in all material respects to perform the functions for which they were established. Since the end of the Company’s most recent audited fiscal year, there has been no material weakness in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting (whether or not remediated) and no change in the Company’s internal control over financial reporting, including any corrective actions with regard to significant deficiencies or material weaknesses. The Company is not aware of any change in its internal control over financial reporting that has occurred during its most recent fiscal quarter that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, the Company’s internal control over financial reporting.

(ff) Neither the Company, nor any of its Subsidiaries, nor to the knowledge of the Company, any of its or their respective directors, officers or controlling persons has taken, directly or indirectly, without giving effect to any actions taken by the Agent, (i) any action designed to cause or result in, under the Exchange Act or otherwise, stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of the Placement Shares or (ii) any action designed to cause or result in a violation of Regulation M under the Exchange Act.

(gg) The Company and each of its Subsidiaries (i) are in compliance with any and all applicable foreign, federal, state and local laws and regulations relating to the protection of human health and safety, the environment or hazardous or toxic substances or wastes, pollutants or contaminants (“Environmental Laws”), (ii) have received all permits, licenses or other approvals required of them under applicable Environmental Laws to conduct their respective businesses and (iii) are in compliance with all terms and conditions of any such permit, license or approval, except where such noncompliance with Environmental Laws, failure to receive required permits, licenses or other approvals or failure to comply with the terms and conditions of such permits, licenses or approvals would not, singly or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect. There are no costs or liabilities associated with Environmental Laws (including, without limitation, any capital or operating expenditures required for clean-up, closure of properties or compliance with Environmental Laws or any permit, license or approval, any related constraints on operating activities and any potential liabilities to third parties) which would, singly or in the aggregate, reasonably be expected to have a Material Adverse Effect.

(hh) The Company is in compliance, in all material respects and as currently required, with, and there is and has been no failure on the part of the Company and, to the Company’s knowledge, any of the Company’s directors or officers, in their capacities as such, to comply, in all material respects and as currently required, with, any applicable provision of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and all rules and regulations promulgated thereunder or implementing the provisions thereof (the “Sarbanes-Oxley Act”) and the rules and regulations promulgated in connection therewith, including Section 402 relating to loans.

 

12


(ii) (i) None of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries or controlled affiliates, or any director, officer, or employee thereof, or, to the Company’s knowledge, any agent or representative of the Company or of any of its Subsidiaries or controlled affiliates, has taken or will take any action in furtherance of an offer, payment, promise to pay, or authorization or approval of the payment, giving or receipt of money, property, gifts or anything else of value, directly or indirectly, to any government official (including any officer or employee of a government or government-owned or controlled entity or of a public international organization, or any person acting in an official capacity for or on behalf of any of the foregoing, or any political party or party official or candidate for political office) (“Government Official”) in order to influence official action, or to any person in violation of any applicable anti-corruption laws; (ii) the Company and each of its Subsidiaries and controlled affiliates have conducted their businesses in compliance with applicable anti-corruption laws and have instituted and maintained and will continue to maintain policies and procedures reasonably designed to promote and achieve compliance with such laws and with the representations and warranties contained herein; and (iii) neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries will use, directly or indirectly, the proceeds of the offering in furtherance of an offer, payment, promise to pay, or authorization of the payment or giving of money, or anything else of value, to any person in violation of any applicable anti-corruption laws.

(jj) None of the Company, any Subsidiary, affiliate, director, officer or employee thereof or, to the best of the Company’s knowledge, any agent, representative or other person acting on behalf of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries or affiliates, is aware of or has taken any action, directly or indirectly, designed to result in a violation by such persons of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977, as amended, and the rules and regulations thereunder (the “FCPA”), including, without limitation, making use of the mails or any means or instrumentality of interstate commerce corruptly in furtherance of an offer, payment, promise to pay or authorization of the payment of any money, or other property, gift, promise to give, or authorization of the giving of anything of value to any “foreign official” (as such term is defined in the FCPA) or any foreign political party or official thereof or any candidate for foreign political office or otherwise took any action (or failed to fully disclose any action) in contravention of the FCPA; and the Company and its Subsidiaries have conducted their businesses in compliance with the FCPA and have instituted and maintain, policies and procedures designed to ensure, and which are reasonably expected to continue to ensure, continued compliance therewith.

(kk) The operations of the Company and each of its Subsidiaries are and have been conducted at all times in material compliance with all applicable financial recordkeeping and reporting requirements, including those of the Bank Secrecy Act, as amended by Title III of the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (USA PATRIOT Act), and the applicable anti-money laundering statutes of jurisdictions where the Company and each of its Subsidiaries conduct business, the rules and regulations thereunder and any related or similar rules, regulations or guidelines, issued, administered or enforced by any governmental agency (collectively, the “Anti-Money Laundering Laws”), and no action, suit or proceeding by or before any court or governmental agency, authority or body or any arbitrator involving the Company or any of its Subsidiaries with respect to the Anti-Money Laundering Laws is pending or, to the best knowledge of the Company, threatened.

 

13


(ll) (i) None of the Company, any of its Subsidiaries, or any director, officer, or employee thereof, or, to the Company’s knowledge, any agent, affiliate or representative of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, is an individual or entity (“Person”) that is, or is owned or controlled by one or more Persons that are:

(A) the subject of any sanctions administered or enforced by the U.S. Department of the Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control, the United Nations Security Council, the European Union, Her Majesty’s Treasury, or other relevant sanctions authority (collectively, “Sanctions”), or

(B) located, organized or resident in a country or territory that is the subject of Sanctions (including, without limitation, the Crimea Region and the non-government controlled areas of the Zaporizhzhia and Kherson Regions of Ukraine, the so-called Donetsk People’s Republic, and the so-called Luhansk People’s Republic, Cuba, Iran, North Korea and Syria).

(ii) The Company will not, directly or indirectly, use the proceeds of the offering, or lend, contribute or otherwise make available such proceeds to any Subsidiary, joint venture partner or other Person:

(A) to fund or facilitate any activities or business of or with any Person or in any country or territory that, at the time of such funding or facilitation, is the subject of Sanctions; or

(B) in any other manner that will result in a violation of Sanctions by any Person (including any Person participating in the offering, whether as underwriter, advisor, investor or otherwise).

(iii) The Company and each of its Subsidiaries have not knowingly engaged in, are not now knowingly engaged in, and will not engage in, any dealings or transactions with any Person, or in any country or territory, that at the time of the dealing or transaction is or was the subject of Sanctions.

(mm) The Company and its Subsidiaries own or have valid, binding and enforceable licenses or other rights under the patents and patent applications, copyrights, trademarks, trademark registrations, service marks, service mark registrations, trade names, service names and know-how (including trade secrets and other unpatented and/or unpatentable proprietary or confidential information, systems or procedures) and all other technology and intellectual property rights necessary for, or used in the conduct, or the proposed conduct, of the business of the Company and its Subsidiaries in the manner described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (collectively, the “Company Intellectual Property”), and the Company owns or has valid, binding and enforceable licenses or other rights to practice such Company Intellectual Property; the intellectual property owned by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is free and clear of all material liens and encumbrances; to the knowledge of the Company, the patents, trademarks and copyrights owned or licensed by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries are valid, enforceable and subsisting; the Company and its Subsidiaries have complied with the terms of each agreement pursuant to which intellectual property has been licensed to the Company or any Subsidiary, and all such agreements are in full force and effect. Other than as disclosed in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, (i) neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries is obligated to pay a material royalty, grant a license or provide other material consideration to any third party in connection with the Company Intellectual Property, (ii) no action, suit, claim or other proceeding is pending, or, to the knowledge of the Company, is threatened, alleging that the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is infringing, misappropriating, diluting or otherwise violating any rights of others with respect to any of the Company’s or any of its Subsidiaries’ product candidates, processes or intellectual property, and the Company is unaware of any facts which would form a reasonable basis for any such action, suit, proceeding or claim, (iii) no action, suit, claim or other proceeding is pending, or, to the knowledge of the Company, is threatened, challenging the validity, enforceability, scope, registration, ownership or use of any of the patents or patent applications included in the Company Intellectual Property, or challenging the Company’s or any of its Subsidiaries’ rights in or to any Company Intellectual Property, and the Company is unaware of any facts which would form a reasonable basis for any such action, suit, proceeding or claim, (iv) neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries has received notice of any claim

 

14


of infringement, misappropriation or conflict with any asserted rights of others with respect to any of the Company’s or any of its Subsidiaries’ product candidates, technology, processes or Company Intellectual Property, (v) to the knowledge of the Company, the development, manufacture, sale, and any currently proposed use of any of the product candidates or processes of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries referred to in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus do not currently, and will not upon commercialization, to the knowledge of the Company, infringe any right or valid patent claim of any third party, (vi) no third party has any ownership right in or to any Company Intellectual Property that is owned by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, other than any co-owner of any patent constituting Company Intellectual Property who is listed on the records of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and any co-owner of any patent application constituting Company Intellectual Property who is named in such patent application, and, to the knowledge of the Company, no third party has any ownership right in or to any Company Intellectual Property licensed to the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, other than any licensor to the Company or such Subsidiary of such Company Intellectual Property, other than any co-owner of any patent constituting Company Intellectual Property who is listed on the records of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and any co-owner of any patent application constituting Company Intellectual Property who is named in such patent application, (vii) the Company and its Subsidiaries have taken reasonable measures to protect their confidential information and trade secrets and to maintain and safeguard the Company Intellectual Property, including the execution of appropriate nondisclosure and confidentiality agreements, (viii) to the knowledge of the Company, no employee, consultant or independent contractor of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is in or has ever been in violation in any material respect of any term of any employment contract, patent disclosure agreement, invention assignment agreement, non-competition agreement, non-solicitation agreement, nondisclosure agreement or any restrictive covenant to or with a former employer or independent contractor where the basis of such violation relates to such employee’s employment or independent contractor’s engagement with the Company or any of its Subsidiaries or actions undertaken while employed or engaged with the Company of any of its Subsidiaries, and (ix) to the knowledge of the Company, there is no infringement by third parties of any Company Intellectual Property.

(nn) The Company and each of its Subsidiaries (i) is, and since January 7, 2021 has been, in material compliance with all statutes, rules, regulations, and policies applicable to the Company’s business, including but not limited to statutes, rules, and regulations related to the ownership, testing, development, registration, licensure, manufacture, processing, use, recordkeeping, filing of reports, storage, distribution, packaging, labeling, promotion, import, export or disposal of any product candidate developed or manufactured by or on behalf of the Company or such Subsidiary, including, without limitation, the U.S. Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. § 301 et seq.), the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. § 201 et seq.), the regulations promulgated pursuant to such laws, including, without limitation, 21 C.F.R. Parts 50, 54, 56, 58 and 312, the U.S. Animal Welfare Act and comparable state laws, and all other local, state, federal, national and foreign laws, rules, and regulations, applicable to the Company or any of its Subsidiaries (collectively, the “Applicable Laws”); (ii) has not received any written notice, from any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority or third party alleging or asserting material non-compliance with any Applicable Laws or any licenses, exemptions, certificates, approvals, clearances, authorizations, permits, registrations and supplements or amendments thereto required by any such Applicable Laws (“Authorizations”); (iii) possesses all material Authorizations and such Authorizations are valid and in full force and effect and, to the Company’s knowledge, are not in violation of any term of such Authorizations; (iv) has not received any written notice, or to the knowledge of the Company any oral notice, of any claim, action, suit, proceeding, hearing, enforcement, investigation, arbitration or other action, or notice of adverse finding, any FDA Form 483, warning letter, untitled letter or other communication, from any governmental or regulatory authority alleging or asserting noncompliance with any Applicable Laws or Authorizations nor, to the knowledge of the Company, is any such claim, action, suit, proceeding, hearing, enforcement, investigation, arbitration or other action or communication threatened; (v) has not received written notice, or to the knowledge of the

 

15


Company any oral notice, from any court or arbitrator or governmental or regulatory authority that such court, arbitrator or authority has taken, is taking or intends to take action to materially limit, suspend, materially modify or revoke any Authorizations nor, to the knowledge of the Company, is any such limitation, suspension, modification or revocation threatened; (vi) has filed, obtained, maintained or submitted all material reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments as required by any Applicable Laws or Authorizations and that all such material reports, documents, forms, notices, applications, records, claims, submissions and supplements or amendments were complete and accurate on the date filed in all material respects (or were corrected or supplemented by a subsequent submission); and (vii) is not a party to any corporate integrity agreements, monitoring agreements, consent decrees, settlement orders, or similar agreements with or imposed by any governmental or regulatory authority.

(oo) (i) The clinical and preclinical studies and trials conducted by or on behalf of or sponsored by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries that are described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or the results of which are referred to in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, or are intended to be submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (“FDA”), the European Medicines Agency (the “EMA”) or similar foreign, state, and local governmental or regulatory authorities (collectively, the “Regulatory Authorities”), were and, if ongoing, are being conducted in all material respects in accordance with the protocols or study plans established for each such clinical trial or preclinical study and with all Applicable Laws and Authorizations; (ii) the descriptions in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus of the results of such trials and tests are accurate and complete in all material respects; and fairly present the data derived from such studies and trials; (iii) the Company has no knowledge of any other trials the results of which are materially inconsistent with or otherwise could reasonably be expected to discredit or call into question the results described or referred to in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus; (iv) neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries has received any written notices, correspondence or other communication from any Regulatory Authority or any other governmental agency or any institutional review board or ethics committee, or other similar entity imposing the termination, suspension, or material modification of any clinical or preclinical trials that are described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or the results of which are referred to in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus; nor is the Company aware of any facts that would form a reasonable basis for any such termination, suspension or material modification.

(pp) Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries, nor, to the knowledge of the Company, any of its or any of its Subsidiaries’ officers, directors or managing employees (as defined in 42 U.S.C. § 1320a-5(b)), is or has been excluded, suspended or debarred from participation in any national or regional health care program, debarred by FDA or comparable authorities pursuant to 21 U.S.C. § 335a or similar laws, or made subject to any pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened action which would reasonably be expected to result in such exclusion, suspension or debarment.

(qq) The Company acknowledges and agrees that the Agent has informed the Company that the Agent may, to the extent permitted under the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, purchase and sell shares of Common Stock for its own account while this Agreement is in effect; provided, that (i) no such purchase or sales shall take place while a Placement Notice is in effect (except to the extent the Agent may engage in sales of Placement Shares purchased or deemed purchased from the Company as a “riskless principal” or in a similar capacity) and (ii) the Company shall not be deemed to have authorized or consented to any such purchases or sales by the Agent, except as may be otherwise agreed by the Company and the Agent.

(rr) The Company is not a party to any agreement with an agent or underwriter for any other “at the market” or continuous equity transaction.

 

16


(ss) The Company is not required to register as a “broker” or “dealer” in accordance with the provisions of the Exchange Act and does not, directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, control or have any other association with (within the meaning of Article I of the By-laws of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, Inc. (“FINRA”)) any member firm of FINRA. No relationship, direct or indirect, exists between or among the Company, on the one hand, and the directors, officers or shareholders of the Company, on the other hand, which is required by the rules of FINRA to be described in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, which is not so described. All of the information (including, but not limited to, information regarding affiliations, security ownership and trading activity) provided to the Agent or its counsel by the Company, its officers and directors and the holders of any securities (debt or equity) or warrants, options or rights to acquire any securities of the Company in connection with the filing to be made and other supplemental information to be provided to FINRA pursuant to FINRA Rule 5110 in connection with the transactions contemplated by this Agreement is true, complete and correct in all material respects.

(tt) The Company is not a shell company (as defined in Rule 405) and has not been a shell company for at least 12 calendar months previously.

(uu) Neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries has (i) failed to pay any dividend or sinking fund installment on preferred stock or (ii) defaulted on any installment or payment due on indebtedness for borrowed money or on any rental on one or more long-term leases, in each case which, individually or in the aggregate, could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

(vv) There are no relationships, direct or indirect, or related party transactions involving the Company or any of its Subsidiaries or any other person (including any director, officer, stockholder, customer or supplier of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries) required to be described in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus that have not been described as required. There are no material outstanding loans, advances (except normal advances for business expenses in the ordinary course of business) or guarantees of indebtedness by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries to or for the benefit of any of the officers or directors of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries, or any of the family members of any of such persons.

(ww) The Company is not in or subject to a bankruptcy or insolvency proceeding in any jurisdiction.

(xx) No director or officer of the Company or any of its Subsidiaries is subject to any non-competition agreement or non-solicitation agreement with any employer or prior employer which could materially affect each director’s or officer’s ability to be and act in the capacity of a director or officer of the Company or a Subsidiary.

(yy) The Company and its Subsidiaries own or possess, or can acquire on reasonable terms, all material patents, patent rights, licenses, inventions, copyrights, know-how (including trade secrets and other unpatented and/or unpatentable proprietary or confidential information, systems or procedures), trademarks, service marks and trade names currently employed by them in connection with the business now operated by them, and neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries has received any notice of infringement of or conflict with asserted rights of others with respect to any of the foregoing which, singly or in the aggregate, if the subject of an unfavorable decision, ruling or finding, would have a Material Adverse Effect.

 

17


(zz) All patents and patent applications owned by or licensed to the Company or any of its Subsidiaries or under which the Company or any of its Subsidiaries has rights have, to the knowledge of the Company, been duly and properly filed and maintained; to the knowledge of the Company, no person having a duty of candor to the Intellectual Property Office or the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (“USPTO” and together with the Intellectual Property Office, the “Intellectual Property Authorities”) with respect to the prosecution of such patents and patent applications has breached such duty; and the Company is not aware of any facts required to be disclosed to the Intellectual Property Authorities that were not disclosed to the Intellectual Property Authorities and which would preclude the grant of a patent in connection with any such application or could form the basis of a finding of invalidity with respect to any patents that have issued with respect to such applications.

(aaa) (i) The Company and its Subsidiaries use and have used any and all software and other materials distributed under a “free,” “open source,” or similar licensing model (including but not limited to the MIT License, Apache License, GNU General Public License, GNU Lesser General Public License and GNU Affero General Public License) (“Open Source Software”) in compliance with all license terms applicable to such Open Source Software; and (ii) neither the Company nor any of its Subsidiaries uses or distributes or has used or distributed any Open Source Software in any manner that requires or has required (A) the Company or any of its Subsidiaries to permit reverse engineering of any software code or other technology owned by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries or (B) any software code or other technology owned by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries to be (1) disclosed or distributed in source code form, (2) licensed for the purpose of making derivative works or (3) redistributed at no charge.

(bbb) (i) The Company and each of its Subsidiaries have complied and are presently in compliance in all material respects with all internal and external privacy policies, contractual obligations, applicable industry standards, applicable laws, statutes, judgments, orders, rules and regulations of any court or arbitrator or other governmental or regulatory authority and any other legal obligations, in each case, relating to the collection, use, transfer, import, export, storage, protection, disposal and disclosure by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries of personal, personally identifiable, household, sensitive, confidential or regulated data (“Data Security Obligations”, and such data, “Data”); (ii) the Company has not received any written notification of or complaint regarding and is unaware of any other facts that, individually or in the aggregate, would reasonably indicate non-compliance with any Data Security Obligation; and (iii) of there is no action, suit or proceeding by or before any court or governmental agency, authority or body pending or, to the knowledge of the Company, threatened alleging material non-compliance with any Data Security Obligation.

(ccc) The Company and each of its Subsidiaries have taken all technical and organizational measures reasonably necessary to protect the information technology systems and Data used in connection with the operation of the Company’s and its Subsidiaries’ businesses. Without limiting the foregoing, the Company and its Subsidiaries have used reasonable efforts to establish and maintain, and have established, maintained, implemented and complied with in all material respects, reasonable information technology, information security, cyber security and data protection controls, policies and procedures, including oversight, access controls, encryption, technological and physical safeguards and security plans that are designed to protect against and prevent breach, destruction, loss, unauthorized distribution, use, access, disablement, misappropriation or modification, or other compromise or misuse of or relating to any information technology system or Data used in connection with the operation of the Company’s and its Subsidiaries’ businesses (“Breach”). There has been no such Breach, and the Company and its Subsidiaries have not been notified in writing of and have no knowledge of any event or condition that would reasonably be expected to result in, any such Breach.

Any certificate signed by any officer of the Company and delivered to the Agent or its counsel in connection with the offering of the Placement Shares shall be deemed a representation and warranty by the Company, as to matters covered thereby, to the Agent.

 

18


7. Covenants of the Company. The Company covenants and agrees with the Agent that:

(a) Registration Statement Amendments. After the date of this Agreement and during any period in which the Prospectus relating to any Placement Shares is required to be delivered by the Agent under the Securities Act (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act or a similar rule); (i) the Company will notify the Agent promptly of the time when any subsequent amendment to the Registration Statement, other than Incorporated Documents, has been filed with the Commission and/or has become effective or any subsequent supplement to the Prospectus, other than Incorporated Documents, has been filed and of any request by the Commission for any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus or for additional information; (ii) the Company will prepare and file with the Commission, promptly upon the Agent’s request, any amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that, in the Agent’s reasonable opinion, may be necessary or advisable in connection with the distribution of the Placement Shares by the Agent (provided, however, that the failure of the Agent to make such request shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect the Agent’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement and provided, further, that the only remedy the Agent shall have with respect to the failure by the Company to make such filing (but without limiting the Agent’s rights under Section 9 hereof) will be to cease making sales under this Agreement until such amendment or supplement is filed); (iii) the Company will not file any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or Prospectus, other than Incorporated Documents, relating to the Placement Shares or a security convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for the Placement Shares unless a copy thereof has been submitted to the Agent within a reasonable period of time before the filing and the Agent has not reasonably objected thereto (provided, however, that the failure of the Agent to make such objection shall not relieve the Company of any obligation or liability hereunder, or affect the Agent’s right to rely on the representations and warranties made by the Company in this Agreement and provided, further, that the only remedy the Agent shall have with respect to the Company’s making such filing notwithstanding the Agent’s objection (but without limiting the Agent’s rights under Section 9 hereof) will be to cease making sales under this Agreement) and the Company will furnish to the Agent at the time of filing thereof a copy of any Incorporated Document, except for those documents available via EDGAR; and (iv) the Company will cause each amendment or supplement to the Prospectus, other than Incorporated Documents, to be filed with the Commission as required pursuant to the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) of the Securities Act and, in the case of any Incorporated Document, to be filed with the Commission as required pursuant to the Exchange Act, within the time period prescribed.

(b) Notice of Commission Stop Orders. The Company will advise the Agent, promptly after it receives notice or obtains knowledge thereof, of the issuance or threatened issuance by the Commission of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement, of the suspension of the qualification of the Placement Shares for offering or sale in any jurisdiction or of the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for any such purpose; and it will promptly use its commercially reasonable efforts to prevent the issuance of any stop order or to obtain its withdrawal if such a stop order should be issued. The Company will advise the Agent promptly after it receives any request by the Commission for any amendments to the Registration Statement or any amendment or supplements to the Prospectus or for additional information related to the offering of the Placement Shares or for additional information related to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus.

(c) Delivery of Prospectus; Subsequent Changes. During any period in which the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered by the Agent under the Securities Act with respect to the offer and sale of the Placement Shares (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act or a similar rule), the Company will comply with all requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act, as from time to time in force, and will file on or before their respective due dates (taking into account any extensions available under the

 

19


Exchange Act) all reports and any definitive proxy or information statements required to be filed by the Company with the Commission pursuant to Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14, 15(d) or any other provision of or under the Exchange Act. If during such period any event occurs as a result of which the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented would include an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances then existing, not misleading, or if during such period it is necessary to amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus to comply with the Securities Act, the Company will promptly notify the Agent to suspend the offering of Placement Shares during such period and the Company will promptly amend or supplement the Registration Statement or Prospectus (at the expense of the Company) so as to correct such statement or omission or effect such compliance. If the Company has omitted any information from the Registration Statement pursuant to Rule 430B under the Securities Act, it will use its best efforts to comply with the provisions thereof and make all requisite filings with the Commission pursuant to said Rule 430B and to notify the Agent promptly of all such filings if not available on EDGAR.

(d) Listing of Placement Shares. During any period in which the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered by the Agent under the Securities Act with respect to the offer and sale of the Placement Shares (including in circumstances where such requirement may be satisfied pursuant to Rule 172 under the Securities Act or a similar rule), the Company will use its commercially reasonable efforts to cause the Placement Shares to be listed on Nasdaq. The Company will timely file with Nasdaq all material documents and notices required by Nasdaq of companies that have or will issue securities that are traded on Nasdaq.

(e) Delivery of Registration Statement and Prospectus. The Company will furnish to the Agent and its counsel (at the expense of the Company) copies of the Registration Statement, the Prospectus (including all Incorporated Documents) and all amendments and supplements to the Registration Statement or Prospectus that are filed with the Commission during any period in which the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares is required to be delivered under the Securities Act (including all Incorporated Documents filed with the Commission during such period), in each case as soon as reasonably practicable and in such quantities as the Agent may from time to time reasonably request and, at the Agent’s request, will also furnish copies of the Prospectus to each exchange or market on which sales of the Placement Shares may be made; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required to furnish any document (other than the Prospectus) to the Agent to the extent such document is available on EDGAR.

(f) Earnings Statement. The Company will make generally available to its security holders and to the Agent as soon as practicable, but in any event not later than 15 months after the end of the Company’s current fiscal quarter, an earnings statement covering a 12-month period that satisfies the provisions of Section 11(a) of and Rule 158 under the Securities Act.

(g) Expenses. The Company, whether or not the transactions contemplated hereunder are consummated or this Agreement is terminated in accordance with the provisions of Section 11 hereunder, will pay or cause to be paid all expenses incident to the performance of its obligations hereunder, including expenses relating to (i) the preparation, printing and filing of the Registration Statement and each amendment and supplement thereto, of the Prospectus and of each amendment and supplement thereto and of this Agreement and such other documents as may be required in connection with the offering, purchase, sale, issuance or delivery of the Placement Shares, (ii) the preparation, issuance, sale and delivery of the Placement Shares and any stock or transfer taxes due or payable in connection therewith, (iii) the qualification of the Placement Shares under securities laws in accordance with the provisions of Section 7(w) of this Agreement, including filing fees (provided, however, that any fees or disbursements of counsel for the Agent in connection therewith shall be paid by the Agent except as set forth in clauses (vii) and (viii) below), (iv) the printing and delivery to the Agent and its counsel of copies

 

20


of the Prospectus and any amendments or supplements thereto, and of this Agreement, (v) the fees and expenses incurred in connection with the listing or qualification of the Placement Shares for trading on Nasdaq, (vi) the filing fees and expenses, if any, owed to the Commission or FINRA and the fees and expenses of any transfer agent or registrar for the Placement Shares, (vii) the fees and associated expenses of the Agent’s outside legal counsel for filings with the FINRA Corporate Financing Department in an amount not to exceed $15,000 (excluding FINRA filing fees referred to in clause (vi) above and in addition to the fees and disbursements referred to in clause (viii) below), and (viii) the reasonable fees and disbursements of the Agent’s outside legal counsel (A) in an amount not to exceed $75,000 arising out of executing this Agreement and the Company’s delivery of the initial certificate pursuant to Section 7(m) and (B) in an amount not to exceed 15,000 in connection with each Representation Date (as defined below) on which the Company is required to provide a certificate pursuant to Section 7(m) (in addition to the fees and associated expenses referred to in clause (vii) above).

(h) Use of Proceeds. The Company will use the Net Proceeds as described in the Prospectus in the section entitled “Use of Proceeds.”

(i) Notice of Other Sales. Without the prior written consent of the Agent, the Company will not, directly or indirectly, offer to sell, sell, contract to sell, grant any option to sell or otherwise dispose of any shares of Common Stock (other than the Placement Shares offered pursuant to this Agreement) or securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for shares of Common Stock, warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire shares of Common Stock during the period beginning on the fifth Trading Day immediately prior to the date on which any Placement Notice is delivered to Agent hereunder and ending on the second Trading Day immediately following the final Settlement Date with respect to Placement Shares sold pursuant to such Placement Notice (or, if the Placement Notice has been terminated or suspended prior to the sale of all Placement Shares covered by a Placement Notice, the date of such suspension or termination); and will not directly or indirectly in any other “at the market offering” or continuous equity transaction offer to sell, sell, contract to sell, grant any option to sell or otherwise dispose of any shares of Common Stock (other than the Placement Shares offered pursuant to this Agreement) or securities convertible into or exchangeable or exercisable for shares of Common Stock, warrants or any rights to purchase or acquire, shares of Common Stock prior to the later of the termination of this Agreement and the sixtieth day immediately following the final Settlement Date with respect to Placement Shares sold pursuant to such Placement Notice; provided, however, that such restrictions will not be required in connection with the Company’s issuance or sale of (i) shares of Common Stock, options to purchase shares of Common Stock, other securities under the Company’s existing equity incentive plans, or shares of Common Stock issuable upon the exercise of options or vesting of other securities, pursuant to any employee or director stock option or benefits plan, stock ownership plan or dividend reinvestment plan (but not shares of Common Stock subject to a waiver to exceed plan limits in its dividend reinvestment plan) of the Company whether now in effect or hereafter implemented, (ii) shares of Common Stock issuable upon conversion of securities or the exercise of warrants, options or other rights in effect or outstanding, and disclosed in filings by the Company available on EDGAR or otherwise in writing to the Agent and (iii) shares of Common Stock or securities convertible into or exchangeable for shares of Common Stock as consideration for mergers, acquisitions, other business combinations or strategic alliances occurring after the date of this Agreement which are not issued for capital raising purposes.

(j) Change of Circumstances. The Company will, at any time during a fiscal quarter in which the Company intends to tender a Placement Notice or sell Placement Shares, advise the Agent promptly after it shall have received notice or obtained knowledge of any information or fact that would alter or affect in any material respect any opinion, certificate, letter or other document provided or required to be provided to the Agent pursuant to this Agreement.

 

21


(k) Due Diligence Cooperation. During the term of this Agreement, the Company will cooperate with any reasonable due diligence review conducted by the Agent, its affiliates, agents and counsel from time to time in connection with the transactions contemplated hereby, including providing information and making available documents and senior corporate officers, during regular business hours and at the Company’s principal offices, as the Agent may reasonably request.

(l) Required Filings Relating to Placement of Placement Shares. The Company agrees that on or prior to such dates as the Securities Act shall require, the Company will (i) file a prospectus supplement with the Commission under the applicable paragraph of Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act, which prospectus supplement will set forth, within the relevant period, the number or amount of Placement Shares sold through the Agent, the Net Proceeds to the Company and the compensation payable by the Company to the Agent with respect to such Placement Shares, and (ii) deliver such number of copies of each such prospectus supplement to each exchange or market on which such sales were effected as may be required by the rules or regulations of such exchange or market; provided, that, unless a prospectus supplement containing such information is required to be filed under the Securities Act, the requirement of this Section 7(l) may be satisfied by Company’s inclusion in the Company’s Form 10-K or Form 10-Q, as applicable, of the number or amount of Placement Shares sold through the Agent, the Net Proceeds to the Company and the compensation payable by the Company to the Agent with respect to such Placement Shares during the relevant period.

(m) Representation Dates; Certificate. On or prior to the date on which the Company first delivers a Placement Notice pursuant to this Agreement (the “First Placement Notice Date”) and each time the Company:

(i) amends or supplements the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares (other than a prospectus supplement filed in accordance with Section 7(l) of this Agreement) by means of a post-effective amendment, sticker or supplement but not by means of incorporation of document(s) by reference into the Registration Statement or the Prospectus relating to the Placement Shares;

(ii) files an annual report on Form 10-K under the Exchange Act (including any Form 10-K/A containing amended financial information or a material amendment to the previously filed Form 10-K);

(iii) files a quarterly report on Form 10-Q under the Exchange Act; or

(iv) files a current report on Form 8-K containing amended financial information (other than an earnings release that is “furnished” pursuant to Item 2.02 or Item 7.01 of Form 8-K) under the Exchange Act (each date of filing of one or more of the documents referred to in clauses (i) through (iv) shall be a “Representation Date”),

the Company shall furnish the Agent (but in the case of clause (iv) above only if (1) a Placement Notice is pending or in effect and (2) the Agent requests such certificate within three Business Days after the filing of such Form 8-K with the Commission) with a certificate, in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m) (modified, as necessary, to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented), within two Trading Days of any Representation Date. The requirement to provide a certificate under this Section 7(m) shall be waived for any Representation Date occurring at a time at which no Placement Notice is pending or in effect, which waiver shall continue until the earlier to occur of (1) the date the Company delivers a Placement Notice hereunder (which for such calendar quarter shall be considered a Representation Date) and (2) the next occurring Representation Date. Notwithstanding the foregoing, if the Company subsequently decides to sell Placement Shares following a Representation

 

22


Date on which the Company relied on the waiver referred to in the previous sentence and did not provide the Agent with a certificate under this Section 7(m), then before the Company delivers a Placement Notice or the Agent sells any Placement Shares pursuant thereto, the Company shall provide the Agent with a certificate, in the form attached hereto as Exhibit 7(m), dated the date of such Placement Notice. Within two Trading Days of each Representation Date, the Company shall have furnished to the Agent such further information, certificates and documents as the Agent may reasonably request.

(n) Legal Opinions. On or prior to the First Placement Notice Date and on any date which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(m) for which no waiver is applicable, the Company shall cause to be furnished to the Agent the written opinion and negative assurance letter of Ropes & Gray LLP, counsel to the Company, or such other counsel satisfactory to the Agent (“Company Counsel”), in form and substance satisfactory to the Agent and its counsel, dated the date that the opinion and negative assurance letter are required to be delivered, modified, as necessary, to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented; provided, however, that in lieu of such opinion and negative assurance letter for subsequent Representation Dates, Company Counsel may furnish the Agent with a letter to the effect that the Agent may rely on a prior opinion or negative assurance letter delivered by such counsel under this Section 7(n) to the same extent as if it were dated the date of such letter (except that statements in such prior opinion or negative assurance letter shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented at such Representation Date).

(o) Intellectual Property Opinion. On or prior to the First Placement Notice Date and on any date which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(m) for which no waiver is applicable, the Company shall cause to be furnished to the Agent the written opinion of Goodwin Procter LLP, counsel for the Company with respect to intellectual property matters, or such other intellectual property counsel satisfactory to the Agent (“Intellectual Property Counsel”), in form and substance satisfactory to the Agent and its counsel, dated the date that the opinion letter is required to be delivered, modified, as necessary, to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as then amended or supplemented; provided, however, that in lieu of such written opinion for subsequent Representation Dates, Intellectual Property Counsel may furnish the Agent with a letter to the effect that the Agent may rely on a prior opinion letter delivered by such counsel under this Section 7(o) to the same extent as if it were dated the date of such opinion letter (except that statements in such prior opinion letter shall be deemed to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus as amended or supplemented at such Representation Date).

(p) Comfort Letter. On or prior to the First Placement Notice Date and on any date which the Company is obligated to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(m) for which no waiver is applicable, the Company shall cause its independent registered public accounting firm (and any other independent accountants whose report is included in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus) to furnish the Agent letters (the “Comfort Letters”), dated the date the Comfort Letter is delivered, which shall meet the requirements set forth in this Section 7(p); provided, that if requested by the Agent, the Company shall cause a Comfort Letter to be furnished to the Agent within 10 Trading Days of the occurrence of any material transaction or event that necessitates the filing of additional, pro forma, amended or revised financial statements (including any restatement of previously issued financial statements). Each Comfort Letter shall be in form and substance satisfactory to the Agent and each Comfort Letter from the Company’s independent registered public accounting firm shall (i) confirm that they are an independent registered public accounting firm within the meaning of the Securities Act and the PCAOB, (ii) state, as of such date, the conclusions and findings of such firm with respect to the financial information and other matters ordinarily covered by accountants’ “comfort letters” to underwriters in connection with registered public offerings (the first such letter, the “Initial Comfort Letter”) and (iii) update the Initial Comfort Letter with any information that would have been included in the Initial Comfort Letter had it been given on such date and modified as necessary to relate to the Registration Statement and the Prospectus, as amended and supplemented to the date of such letter.

 

23


(q) Market Activities. The Company will not, directly or indirectly, and will cause its officers, directors and Subsidiaries not to (i) take any action designed to cause or result in, or that constitutes or might reasonably be expected to constitute, the stabilization or manipulation of the price of any security of the Company to facilitate the sale or resale of shares of Common Stock or (ii) sell, bid for, or purchase shares of Common Stock in violation of Regulation M, or pay anyone any compensation for soliciting purchases of the Placement Shares other than the Agent; provided, however, that the Company may bid for and purchase shares of Common Stock in accordance with Rule 10b-18 under the Exchange Act.

(r) Insurance. The Company and its Subsidiaries shall maintain, or cause to be maintained, insurance in such amounts and covering such risks as is reasonable and customary for the business for which it is engaged, except where the failure to maintain such insurance could not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

(s) Compliance with Laws. The Company and each of its Subsidiaries shall maintain, or cause to be maintained, all material environmental certificates, authorizations or permits required by federal, state and local law in order to conduct their businesses as described in the Prospectus (collectively, “Permits”), and the Company and each of its Subsidiaries shall conduct their businesses, or cause their businesses to be conducted, in substantial compliance with such Permits and with applicable Environmental Laws, except where the failure to maintain or be in compliance with such Permits or Environmental Laws could not reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect.

(t) Investment Company Act. The Company will conduct its affairs in such a manner so as to reasonably ensure that neither it nor any of its Subsidiaries will be or become, at any time prior to the termination of this Agreement, an “investment company,” as such term is defined in the Investment Company Act.

(u) Securities Act and Exchange Act. The Company will use commercially reasonable efforts to comply with all requirements imposed upon it by the Securities Act and the Exchange Act as from time to time in force, so far as necessary to permit the sales of, or dealings in, the Placement Shares as contemplated by the provisions hereof and the Prospectus.

(v) No Offer to Sell. Other than a free writing prospectus (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act) approved in advance by the Company and the Agent in its capacity as principal or agent hereunder, neither the Agent nor the Company (including its agents and representatives, other than the Agent in its capacity as agent) will make, use, prepare, authorize, approve or refer to any written communication (as defined in Rule 405 under the Securities Act), required to be filed with the Commission, that constitutes an offer to sell or solicitation of an offer to buy Placement Shares hereunder.

(w) Blue Sky and Other Qualifications. The Company will use its commercially reasonable efforts, in cooperation with the Agent (to the extent required), to qualify the Placement Shares for offering and sale, or to obtain an exemption for the Placement Shares to be offered and sold, under the applicable securities laws of such states and other jurisdictions (domestic or foreign) as the Agent may designate and to maintain such qualifications and exemptions in effect for so long as required for the distribution of the Placement Shares (but in no event for less than one year from the date of this Agreement); provided, however, that the Company shall not be obligated to file any general consent to service of process or to qualify as a foreign corporation or as a dealer in securities in any jurisdiction in which it is not so qualified or to subject itself to taxation in respect of doing business in any jurisdiction in which it is not

 

24


otherwise so subject. In each jurisdiction in which the Placement Shares have been so qualified or exempt, the Company will file such statements and reports as may be required by the laws of such jurisdiction to continue such qualification or exemption, as the case may be, in effect for so long as required for the distribution of the Placement Shares (but in no event for less than one year from the date of this Agreement).

(x) Sarbanes-Oxley Act. The Company will maintain and keep accurate books and records reflecting its assets and maintain internal accounting controls in a manner designed to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with GAAP and including those policies and procedures that (i) pertain to the maintenance of records that in reasonable detail accurately and fairly reflect the transactions and dispositions of the assets of the Company, (ii) provide reasonable assurance that transactions are recorded as necessary to permit the preparation of the Company’s financial statements in accordance with GAAP, (iii) that receipts and expenditures of the Company are being made only in accordance with management’s and the Company’s directors’ authorization, and (iv) provide reasonable assurance regarding prevention or timely detection of unauthorized acquisition, use or disposition of the Company’s assets that could have a material effect on its financial statements. The Company will maintain such controls and other procedures, including, without limitation, those required by Sections 302 and 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, and the applicable regulations thereunder that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is recorded, processed, summarized and reported, within the time periods specified in the Commission’s rules and forms, including, without limitation, controls and procedures designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed by the Company in the reports that it files or submits under the Exchange Act is accumulated and communicated to the Company’s management, including its principal executive officer and principal financial officer, or persons performing similar functions, as appropriate to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure and to ensure that material information relating to the Company is made known to it by others within the Company, particularly during the period in which such periodic reports are being prepared..

(y) Emerging Growth Company. The Company will promptly notify the Agent if the company ceases to be an Emerging Growth Company at any time prior to the completion of the Agent’s distribution of the Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement.

(z) Renewal of Registration Statement. If, immediately prior to the third anniversary of the initial effective date of the Registration Statement (the “Renewal Date”), any of the Placement Shares remain unsold and this Agreement has not been terminated, the Company will, prior to the Renewal Date, file a new shelf registration statement or, if applicable, an automatic shelf registration statement relating to the Common Stock that may be offered and sold pursuant to this Agreement (which shall include a prospectus reflecting the number or amount of Placement Shares that may be offered and sold pursuant to this Agreement), in a form satisfactory to the Agent and its counsel, and, if such registration statement is not an automatic shelf registration statement, will use its best efforts to cause such registration statement to be declared effective within 180 days after the Renewal Date. The Company will take all other reasonable actions necessary or appropriate to permit the public offer and sale of the Placement Shares to continue as contemplated in the expired registration statement and this Agreement. From and after the effective date thereof, references herein to the “Registration Statement” shall include such new shelf registration statement or such new automatic shelf registration statement, as the case may be.

(aa) General Instruction I.B.6. of Form S-3. If, from and after the date of this Agreement, the Company is no longer eligible to use Form S-3 (including pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6.) at the time it files with the Commission an annual report on Form 10-K or any post-effective amendment to the Registration Statement, then it shall promptly notify the Agent and, within two Business Days after the

 

25


date of filing of such annual report on Form 10-K or amendment to the Registration Statement, the Company shall file a new prospectus supplement with the Commission reflecting the number of shares of Common Stock available to be offered and sold by the Company under this Agreement pursuant to General Instruction I.B.6. of Form S-3; provided, however, that the Company may delay the filing of any such prospectus supplement for up to 30 days if, in the reasonable judgment of the Company, it is in the best interest of the Company to do so, provided that no Placement Notice is in effect or pending during such time. Until such time as the Company shall have corrected such misstatement or omission or effected such compliance, the Company shall not notify the Agent to resume the offering of Placement Shares.

(bb) Tax Indemnity. The Company will indemnify and hold harmless the Agent against any documentary, stamp or similar issue tax, including any interest and penalties, on the issue and sale of the Placement Shares.

(cc) Transfer Agent. The Company has engaged and will maintain, at its sole expense, a transfer agent and registrar for the Common Stock.

8. Conditions to the Agent’s Obligations. The obligations of the Agent hereunder with respect to a Placement will be subject to the continuing accuracy and completeness of the representations and warranties made by the Company herein, to the due performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder, to the completion by the Agent of a due diligence review satisfactory to the Agent in its reasonable judgment, and to the continuing satisfaction (or waiver by the Agent in its sole discretion) of the following additional conditions:

(a) Registration Statement Effective. The Registration Statement shall be effective and shall be available for all offers and sales of Placement Shares (i) that have been issued pursuant to all prior Placement Notices and (ii) that will be issued pursuant to any Placement Notice.

(b) Prospectus Supplement. The Company shall have filed with the Commission the Prospectus Supplement pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act not later than the Commission’s close of business on the second Business Day following the date of this Agreement.

(c) No Material Notices. None of the following events shall have occurred and be continuing: (i) receipt by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries of any request for additional information from the Commission or any other federal or state governmental authority during the period of effectiveness of the Registration Statement, the response to which would require any post-effective amendments or supplements to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus; (ii) the issuance by the Commission or any other federal or state governmental authority of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of the Registration Statement or the initiation of any proceedings for that purpose; (iii) receipt by the Company or any of its Subsidiaries of any notification with respect to the suspension of the qualification or exemption from qualification of any of the Placement Shares for sale in any jurisdiction or the initiation or threatening of any proceeding for such purpose; or (iv) the occurrence of any event that makes any material statement made in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus or any material Incorporated Document untrue in any material respect or that requires the making of any changes in the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or Incorporated Documents so that, in the case of the Registration Statement, it will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein not misleading and, in the case of the Prospectus, so that it will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

 

26


(d) No Misstatement or Material Omission. The Agent shall not have advised the Company that the Registration Statement or Prospectus, or any amendment or supplement thereto, contains an untrue statement of fact that in the Agent’s opinion is material, or omits to state a fact that in the Agent’s opinion is material and is required to be stated therein or is necessary to make the statements therein not misleading.

(e) Material Changes. Except as contemplated in the Prospectus, or disclosed in the Company’s reports filed with the Commission, there shall not have been any material adverse change, on a consolidated basis, in the authorized capital stock of the Company or any Material Adverse Effect or any development that could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, or any downgrading in or withdrawal of the rating assigned to any of the Company’s securities (other than asset backed securities), if any, by any rating organization or a public announcement by any rating organization that it has under surveillance or review its rating of any of the Company’s securities (other than asset backed securities), if any, the effect of which, in the judgment of the Agent (without relieving the Company of any obligation or liability it may otherwise have), is so material as to make it impracticable or inadvisable to proceed with the offering of the Placement Shares on the terms and in the manner contemplated in the Prospectus.

(f) Company Counsel Legal Opinions. The Agent shall have received the opinions and negative assurance letters, as applicable, of Company Counsel and Intellectual Property Counsel required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(n) and Section 7(o), as applicable, on or before the date on which such delivery of such opinions and negative assurance letters are required pursuant to Section 7(n) and Section 7(o), as applicable.

(g) Agent’s Counsel Legal Opinion. The Agent shall have received from Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP, counsel for the Agent, such opinion or opinions, on or before the date on which the delivery of the Company Counsel legal opinion is required pursuant to Section 7(n), with respect to such matters as the Agent may reasonably require, and the Company shall have furnished to such counsel such documents as they may request to enable them to pass upon such matters.

(h) Comfort Letter. The Agent shall have received the Comfort Letter required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(p) on or before the date on which such delivery of such Comfort Letter is required pursuant to Section 7(p).

(i) Representation Certificate. The Agent shall have received the certificate required to be delivered pursuant to Section 7(m) on or before the date on which delivery of such certificate is required pursuant to Section 7(m).

(j) Secretary’s Certificate. On or prior to the First Placement Notice Date, the Agent shall have received a certificate, signed on behalf of the Company by the Secretary of the Company and attested to by an executive officer of the Company, dated as of such date and in form and substance satisfactory to the Agent and its counsel, certifying as to (i) the amended and restated certificate of incorporation of the Company, (ii) the amended and restated bylaws of the Company, (iii) the resolutions of the board of directors of the Company or duly authorized committee thereof authorizing the execution, delivery and performance of this Agreement and the issuance and sale of the Placement Shares and (iv) the incumbency of the officers of the Company duly authorized to execute this Agreement and the other documents contemplated by this Agreement (including each of the officers set forth on Schedule 2).

(k) No Suspension. The Common Stock shall be duly listed, and admitted and authorized for trading, subject to official notice of issuance, on Nasdaq. Trading in the Common Stock shall not have been suspended on, and the Common Stock shall not have been delisted from, Nasdaq.

 

27


(l) Other Materials. On each date on which the Company is required to deliver a certificate pursuant to Section 7(m), the Company shall have furnished to the Agent such appropriate further information, opinions, certificates, letters and other documents as the Agent may have reasonably requested. All such information, opinions, certificates, letters and other documents shall have been in compliance with the provisions hereof. The Company shall have furnished the Agent with conformed copies of such opinions, certificates, letters and other documents as the Agent may have reasonably requested.

(m) Securities Act Filings Made. All filings with the Commission required by Rule 424(b) or Rule 433 under the Securities Act to have been filed prior to the issuance of any Placement Notice hereunder shall have been made within the applicable time period prescribed for such filing by Rule 424(b) (without reliance on Rule 424(b)(8) of the Securities Act) or Rule 433, as applicable.

(n) Approval for Listing. Either (i) the Placement Shares shall have been approved for listing on Nasdaq, subject only to notice of issuance, or (ii) the Company shall have filed an application for listing of the Placement Shares on Nasdaq at, or prior to, the First Placement Notice Date and Nasdaq shall have reviewed such application and not provided any objections thereto.

(o) FINRA. FINRA shall have raised no objection to the terms of the offering contemplated hereby and the amount of compensation allowable or payable to the Agent as described in the Prospectus.

(p) No Termination Event. There shall not have occurred any event that would permit the Agent to terminate this Agreement pursuant to Section 11(a).

9. Indemnification and Contribution.

(a) Company Indemnification. The Company agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Agent, its affiliates and their respective partners, members, directors, officers, employees and agents, and each person, if any, who (i) controls the Agent within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act or (ii) is controlled by or is under common control with the Agent, in each case from and against any and all losses, claims, liabilities, expenses and damages (including any and all investigative, legal and other expenses reasonably incurred) in connection with, and any and all amounts paid in settlement (in accordance with this Section 9) in connection with, any action, suit, investigation or proceeding between any of the indemnified parties and any indemnifying parties or between any indemnified party and any third party (including any governmental or self-regulatory authority, or otherwise, or any claim asserted or threatened), as and when incurred, to which the Agent, or any such other person may become subject under the Securities Act, the Exchange Act or other federal or state statutory law or regulation, at common law or otherwise, insofar as such losses, claims, liabilities, expenses or damages arise out of or are based, directly or indirectly, on (x) any untrue statement or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement to the Registration Statement or the Prospectus) or in any free writing prospectus or in any application or other document executed by or on behalf of the Company or based on written information furnished by or on behalf of the Company filed in any jurisdiction in order to qualify the Common Stock under the securities laws thereof or filed with the Commission, (y) the omission or alleged omission to state in any such document a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein (solely with respect to the Prospectus, in light of the circumstances under which they were made) not misleading or (z) any breach by any of the indemnifying parties of any of their respective representations, warranties or agreements contained in this Agreement; provided, however, that this indemnity agreement shall not apply to the extent that such loss, claim, liability, expense or damage arises from the sale of the Placement Shares pursuant to this Agreement and is caused, directly or indirectly, by an untrue statement or omission, or alleged untrue statement or omission, made in reliance upon and in conformity with the Agent’s Information. This indemnity agreement will be in addition to any liability that the Company might otherwise have.

 

28


(b) Agent Indemnification. The Agent agrees to indemnify and hold harmless the Company and its directors and each officer of the Company who signed the Registration Statement, and each person, if any, who (i) controls the Company within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act or (ii) is controlled by or is under common control with the Company against any and all loss, liability, claim, damage and expense described in the indemnity contained in Section 9(a), as incurred, but only with respect to untrue statements or omissions, or alleged untrue statements or omissions, made in the Registration Statement (or any amendments thereto) or the Prospectus (or any amendment or supplement thereto) in reliance upon and in conformity with the Agent’s Information.

(c) Procedure. Any party that proposes to assert the right to be indemnified under this Section 9 will, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim is to be made against an indemnifying party or parties under this Section 9, notify each such indemnifying party of the commencement of such action, enclosing a copy of all papers served, but the omission so to notify such indemnifying party will not relieve the indemnifying party from (i) any liability that it might have to any indemnified party otherwise than under this Section 9 and (ii) any liability that it may have to any indemnified party under the foregoing provision of this Section 9 unless, and only to the extent that, such omission results in the forfeiture of substantive rights or defenses by the indemnifying party. If any such action is brought against any indemnified party and it notifies the indemnifying party of its commencement, the indemnifying party will be entitled to participate in and, to the extent that it elects by delivering written notice to the indemnified party promptly after receiving notice of the commencement of the action from the indemnified party, jointly with any other indemnifying party similarly notified, to assume the defense of the action, with counsel reasonably satisfactory to the indemnified party, and after notice from the indemnifying party to the indemnified party of its election to assume the defense, the indemnifying party will not be liable to the indemnified party for any other legal expenses except as provided below and except for the reasonable costs of investigation subsequently incurred by the indemnified party in connection with the defense. The indemnified party will have the right to employ its own counsel in any such action, but the fees, expenses and other charges of such counsel will be at the expense of such indemnified party unless (1) the employment of counsel by the indemnified party has been authorized in writing by the indemnifying party, (2) the indemnified party has reasonably concluded (based on advice of counsel) that there may be legal defenses available to it or other indemnified parties that are different from or in addition to those available to the indemnifying party, (3) a conflict or potential conflict exists (based on advice of counsel to the indemnified party) between the indemnified party and the indemnifying party (in which case the indemnifying party will not have the right to direct the defense of such action on behalf of the indemnified party) or (4) the indemnifying party has not in fact employed counsel reasonably satisfactory to the indemnified party to assume the defense of such action within a reasonable time after receiving notice of the commencement of the action, in each of which cases the reasonable fees, disbursements and other charges of counsel will be at the expense of the indemnifying party or parties. It is understood that the indemnifying party or parties shall not, in connection with any proceeding or related proceedings in the same jurisdiction, be liable for the reasonable fees, disbursements and other charges of more than one separate firm (plus local counsel) admitted to practice in such jurisdiction at any one time for all such indemnified party or parties. All such fees, disbursements and other charges will be reimbursed by the indemnifying party promptly after the indemnifying party receives a written invoice relating to such fees, disbursements and other charges in reasonable detail. An indemnifying party will not, in any event, be liable for any settlement of any action or claim effected without its written consent. No indemnifying party shall, without the prior written consent of each indemnified party, settle or compromise or consent

 

29


to the entry of any judgment in any pending or threatened claim, action or proceeding relating to the matters contemplated by this Section 9 (whether or not any indemnified party is a party thereto), unless such settlement, compromise or consent (1) includes an unconditional release of each indemnified party, in form and substance reasonably satisfactory to such indemnified party, from all liability arising out of such claim, action or proceeding and (2) does not include a statement as to or an admission of fault, culpability or a failure to act by or on behalf of any indemnified party.

(d) Settlement Without Consent if Failure to Reimburse. If an indemnified party shall have requested an indemnifying party to reimburse the indemnified party for reasonable fees and expenses of counsel for which it is entitled to be reimbursed under this Section 9, such indemnifying party agrees that it shall be liable for any settlement of the nature contemplated by Section 9(a) effected without its written consent if (i) such settlement is entered into more than 45 days after receipt by such indemnifying party of the aforesaid request, (ii) such indemnifying party shall have received notice of the terms of such settlement at least 30 days prior to such settlement being entered into and (iii) such indemnifying party shall not have reimbursed such indemnified party in accordance with such request prior to the date of such settlement.

(e) Contribution. In order to provide for just and equitable contribution in circumstances in which the indemnification provided for in the foregoing paragraphs of this Section 9 is applicable in accordance with its terms but for any reason is held to be unavailable or insufficient from the Company or the Agent, the Company and the Agent will contribute to the total losses, claims, liabilities, expenses and damages (including any investigative, legal and other expenses reasonably incurred in connection with, and any amount paid in settlement of, any action, suit, investigation or proceeding or any claim asserted, but after deducting any contribution received by the Company from persons other than the Agent, such as persons who control the Company within the meaning of the Securities Act, officers of the Company who signed the Registration Statement and directors of the Company, who also may be liable for contribution) to which the Company and the Agent may be subject in such proportion as shall be appropriate to reflect the relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and the Agent on the other hand. The relative benefits received by the Company on the one hand and the Agent on the other hand shall be deemed to be in the same proportion as the total Net Proceeds from the sale of the Placement Shares (before deducting expenses) received by the Company bear to the total compensation received by the Agent from the sale of Placement Shares on behalf of the Company. If, but only if, the allocation provided by the foregoing sentence is not permitted by applicable law, the allocation of contribution shall be made in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect not only the relative benefits referred to in the foregoing sentence but also the relative fault of the Company, on the one hand, and the Agent, on the other hand, with respect to the statements or omission that resulted in such loss, claim, liability, expense or damage, or action, suit, investigation or proceeding in respect thereof, as well as any other relevant equitable considerations with respect to such offering. Such relative fault shall be determined by reference to, among other things, whether the untrue or alleged untrue statement of a material fact or omission or alleged omission to state a material fact relates to information supplied by the Company or the Agent, the intent of the parties and their relative knowledge, access to information and opportunity to correct or prevent such statement or omission. The Company and the Agent agree that it would not be just and equitable if contributions pursuant to this Section 9(e) were to be determined by pro rata allocation or by any other method of allocation that does not take into account the equitable considerations referred to herein. The amount paid or payable by an indemnified party as a result of the loss, claim, liability, expense or damage, or action, suit, investigation or proceeding in respect thereof, referred to above in this Section 9(e) shall be deemed to include, for the purpose of this Section 9(e), any reasonable and documented legal or other expenses incurred by such indemnified party in connection with investigating or defending any such action, suit, investigation, proceeding or claim to the extent consistent with this Section 9. Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 9(e), the Agent shall not be required to contribute any amount in excess of the commissions received by it under this Agreement and no person

 

30


found guilty of fraudulent misrepresentation (within the meaning of Section 11(f) of the Securities Act) will be entitled to contribution from any person who was not guilty of such fraudulent misrepresentation. For purposes of this Section 9(e), any person who controls a party to this Agreement within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act, any affiliates of the Agent, any partners, members, directors, officers, employees and agents of the Agent and each person that is controlled by or under common control with the Agent will have the same rights to contribution as that party, and each officer of the Company who signed the Registration Statement will have the same rights to contribution as the Company, subject in each case to the provisions hereof. Any party entitled to contribution, promptly after receipt of notice of commencement of any action against such party in respect of which a claim for contribution may be made under this Section 9(e), will notify any such party or parties from whom contribution may be sought, but the omission to so notify will not relieve that party or parties from whom contribution may be sought from any other obligation it or they may have under this Section 9(e) except to the extent that the failure to so notify such other party materially prejudiced the substantive rights or defenses of the party from whom contribution is sought. Except for a settlement entered into pursuant to the last sentence of Section 9(c) hereof or pursuant to Section 9(d) hereof, no party will be liable for contribution with respect to any action or claim settled without its written consent if such consent is required pursuant to Section 9(c) hereof.

10. Representations and Agreements to Survive Delivery. The indemnity and contribution agreements contained in Section 9 of this Agreement and all representations and warranties of the Company herein or in certificates delivered pursuant hereto shall survive, as of their respective dates, regardless of (i) any investigation made by or on behalf of the Agent, any controlling persons, or the Company (or any of their respective officers, directors, employees or controlling persons), (ii) delivery and acceptance of the Placement Shares and payment therefor or (iii) any termination of this Agreement.

11. Termination.

(a) The Agent shall have the right, by giving notice as hereinafter specified, at any time to terminate this Agreement if (i) any Material Adverse Effect, or any development that could reasonably be expected to result in a Material Adverse Effect, has occurred that, in the reasonable judgment of the Agent, may materially impair the ability of the Agent to sell the Placement Shares hereunder, (ii) the Company shall have failed, refused or been unable to perform any agreement on its part to be performed hereunder; provided, however, in the case of any failure of the Company to deliver (or cause another person to deliver) any certification, opinion or letter required under Section 7(m), Section 7(n), Section 7(o) or Section 7(p), the Agent’s right to terminate shall not arise unless such failure to deliver (or cause to be delivered) continues for more than 15 calendar days from the date such delivery was required, (iii) any other condition of the Agent’s obligations hereunder is not fulfilled, (iv) any suspension or limitation of trading in the Placement Shares or in securities generally on Nasdaq shall have occurred, (v) a general banking moratorium shall have been declared by any of United States federal or New York authorities, or (vi) there shall have occurred any outbreak or escalation of national or international hostilities or any crisis or calamity, or any change in the United States or international financial markets, or any substantial change or development involving a prospective substantial change in United States or international political, financial or economic conditions that, in the reasonable judgment of the Agent, may materially impair the ability of the Agent to sell the Placement Shares hereunder or to enforce contracts for the sale of securities. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination. If the Agent elects to terminate this Agreement as provided in this Section 11(a), the Agent shall provide the required notice as specified in Section 12.

(b) The Company shall have the right, by giving 10 days’ prior notice as hereinafter specified, to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement.

 

31


Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 11(f), Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

(c) The Agent shall have the right, by giving 10 days’ prior notice as hereinafter specified, to terminate this Agreement in its sole discretion at any time after the date of this Agreement. Any such termination shall be without liability of any party to any other party except that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 11(f), Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

(d) Unless earlier terminated pursuant to this Section 11, this Agreement shall automatically terminate upon the issuance and sale of all of the Placement Shares through the Agent on the terms and subject to the conditions set forth herein; provided that the provisions of Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 11(f), Section 16 and Section 17 hereof shall remain in full force and effect notwithstanding such termination.

(e) This Agreement shall remain in full force and effect unless terminated pursuant to Sections 11(a), (b), (c), or (d) above or otherwise by mutual agreement of the parties; provided, however, that any such termination by mutual agreement shall in all cases be deemed to provide that Section 7(g), Section 9, Section 10, Section 11(f), Section 16 and Section 17 shall remain in full force and effect.

(f) Any termination of this Agreement shall be effective on the date specified in such notice of termination; provided, however, that such termination shall not be effective until the close of business on the date of receipt of such notice by the Agent or the Company, as the case may be. If such termination shall occur prior to the Settlement Date for any sale of Placement Shares, such Placement Shares shall settle in accordance with the provisions of this Agreement. Upon termination of this Agreement, the Company shall not be required to pay to the Agent any discount or commission with respect to any Placement Shares not otherwise sold by the Agent under this Agreement; provided, however, that the Company shall remain obligated to reimburse the Agent’s expenses pursuant to Section 7(g).

12. Notices. All notices or other communications required or permitted to be given by any party to any other party pursuant to the terms of this Agreement shall be in writing, unless otherwise specified in this Agreement, and if sent to the Agent, shall be delivered to:

SVB Securities LLC

1301 Avenue of the Americas, 12th Floor

New York, New York 10019

Attention: Peter M. Fry

E-mail: peter.fry@svbsecurities.com

with a copy (which shall not constitute notice) to:

SVB Securities LLC

1301 Avenue of the Americas, 12th Floor

New York, New York 10019

Attention: Stuart R. Nayman, Esq.

E-mail: stuart.nayman@svbsecurities.com

 

32


and if to the Company, shall be delivered to:

One Main Street, Suite 1350

Cambridge, MA 02142

Attention: Jeffrey Trigilio

E-mail: jtrigilio@cullinanoncology.com

with copies (which shall not constitute notice) to:

Ropes & Gray LLP

Prudential Tower

800 Boylston Street

Boston, Massachusetts 02199

Attention: Thomas J. Danielski

E-mail: Thomas.Danielski@ropesgray.com

Each party to this Agreement may change such address for notices by sending to the parties to this Agreement written notice of a new address for such purpose. Each such notice or other communication shall be deemed given (i) when delivered personally on or before 4:30 P.M., New York City time, on a Business Day, or, if such day is not a Business Day, on the next succeeding Business Day, (ii) by Electronic Notice as set forth in the next paragraph, (iii) on the next Business Day after timely delivery to a nationally-recognized overnight courier or (iv) on the Business Day actually received if deposited in the U.S. mail (certified or registered mail, return receipt requested, postage prepaid). For purposes of this Agreement, “Business Day” shall mean any day on which the Nasdaq and commercial banks in the City of New York are open for business.

An electronic communication (“Electronic Notice”) shall be deemed written notice for purposes of this Section 12 if sent to the electronic mail address specified by the receiving party in this Section 12. Electronic Notice shall be deemed received at the time the party sending Electronic Notice receives actual acknowledgment of receipt from the person whom the notice is sent, other than via auto-reply. Any party receiving Electronic Notice may request and shall be entitled to receive the notice on paper, in a nonelectronic form (“Nonelectronic Notice”), which shall be sent to the requesting party within 10 days of receipt of the written request for Nonelectronic Notice.

13. Successors and Assigns. This Agreement shall inure to the benefit of and be binding upon the Company and the Agent and their respective successors and the affiliates, controlling persons, officers, directors and other persons referred to in Section 9 hereof. References to any of the parties contained in this Agreement shall be deemed to include the successors and permitted assigns of each such party. Nothing in this Agreement, express or implied, is intended to confer upon any party other than the parties hereto, the persons referred to in the preceding sentence and their respective successors and permitted assigns any rights, remedies, obligations or liabilities under or by reason of this Agreement, except as expressly provided in this Agreement. Neither party may assign its rights or obligations under this Agreement without the prior written consent of the other party; provided, however, that the Agent may assign its rights and obligations hereunder to an affiliate of the Agent without obtaining the Company’s consent, so long as such affiliate is a registered broker-dealer.

14. Adjustments for Share Splits. The parties acknowledge and agree that all share-related numbers contained in this Agreement shall be adjusted to take into account any share split, share dividend or similar event effected with respect to the Common Stock.

 

33


15. Entire Agreement; Amendment; Severability; Waiver. This Agreement (including all schedules (as amended pursuant to this Agreement) and exhibits attached hereto and Placement Notices issued pursuant hereto) constitutes the entire agreement and supersedes all other prior and contemporaneous agreements and undertakings, both written and oral, among the parties hereto with regard to the subject matter hereof. Neither this Agreement nor any term hereof may be amended except pursuant to a written instrument executed by the Company and the Agent; provided, however, that Schedule 2 of this Agreement may be amended by either party from time to time by sending a notice containing a revised Schedule 2 to the other party in the manner provided in Section 12 and, upon such amendment, all references herein to Schedule 2 shall automatically be deemed to refer to such amended Schedule 2. In the event that any one or more of the provisions contained herein, or the application thereof in any circumstance, is held invalid, illegal or unenforceable as written by a court of competent jurisdiction, then such provision shall be given full force and effect to the fullest possible extent that it is valid, legal and enforceable, and the remainder of the terms and provisions herein shall be construed as if such invalid, illegal or unenforceable term or provision was not contained herein, but only to the extent that giving effect to such provision and the remainder of the terms and provisions hereof shall be in accordance with the intent of the parties as reflected in this Agreement. No implied waiver by a party shall arise in the absence of a waiver in writing signed by such party. No failure or delay in exercising any right, power, or privilege hereunder shall operate as a waiver thereof, nor shall any single or partial exercise thereof preclude any other or further exercise thereof or the exercise of any right, power, or privilege hereunder.

16. GOVERNING LAW AND TIME; WAIVER OF JURY TRIAL. THIS AGREEMENT SHALL BE GOVERNED BY AND CONSTRUED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE LAWS OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK WITHOUT REGARD TO THE PRINCIPLES OF CONFLICTS OF LAWS. SPECIFIED TIMES OF DAY REFER TO NEW YORK CITY TIME. EACH PARTY HEREBY IRREVOCABLY WAIVES, TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW, ANY AND ALL RIGHT TO TRIAL BY JURY IN ANY LEGAL PROCEEDING ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING TO THIS AGREEMENT OR THE TRANSACTIONS CONTEMPLATED HEREBY.

17. Consent to Jurisdiction. Each party hereby irrevocably submits to the exclusive jurisdiction of the state and federal courts sitting in the City of New York, Borough of Manhattan, for the adjudication of any dispute hereunder or in connection with any of the transactions contemplated hereby, and hereby irrevocably waives, and agrees not to assert in any suit, action or proceeding, any claim that it is not personally subject to the jurisdiction of any such court, that such suit, action or proceeding is brought in an inconvenient forum, or that the venue of such suit, action or proceeding is improper. Each party hereby irrevocably waives personal service of process and consents to process being served in any such suit, action or proceeding by mailing a copy (certified or registered mail, return receipt requested) to such party at the address in effect for notices under Section 12 of this Agreement and agrees that such service shall constitute good and sufficient notice of process and notice thereof. Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to limit in any way any right to serve process in any manner permitted by law.

18. Construction.

(a) The section and exhibit headings herein are for convenience only and shall not affect the construction hereof.

(b) Words defined in the singular shall have a comparable meaning when used in the plural, and vice versa.

(c) The words “hereof,” “hereto,” “herein” and “hereunder” and words of similar import, when used in this Agreement, shall refer to this Agreement as a whole and not to any particular provision of this Agreement.

 

34


(d) Wherever the word “include,” “includes” or “including” is used in this Agreement, it shall be deemed to be followed by the words “without limitation.”

(e) References herein to any gender shall include each other gender.

(f) References herein to any law, statute, ordinance, code, regulation, rule or other requirement of any governmental authority shall be deemed to refer to such law, statute, ordinance, code, regulation, rule or other requirement of any governmental authority as amended, reenacted, supplemented or superseded in whole or in part and in effect from time to time and also to all rules and regulations promulgated thereunder.

19. Permitted Free Writing Prospectuses. Each of the Company and the Agent represents, warrants and agrees that, unless it obtains the prior written consent of the other party, which consent shall not be unreasonably withheld, conditioned or delayed, it has not made and will not make any offer relating to the Placement Shares that would constitute an issuer free writing prospectus, or that would otherwise constitute a free writing prospectus (as defined in Rule 405), required to be filed with the Commission. Any such free writing prospectus consented to by the Agent or by the Company, as the case may be, is hereinafter referred to as a “Permitted Free Writing Prospectus.” The Company represents and warrants that it has treated and agrees that it will treat each Permitted Free Writing Prospectus as an issuer free writing prospectus, and that it has complied and will comply in all material respects with the requirements of Rule 433 applicable to any Permitted Free Writing Prospectus, including timely filing with the Commission where required, legending and record keeping.

20. Absence of Fiduciary Relationship. The Company acknowledges and agrees that:

(a) the Agent has been retained to act as sales agent in connection with the sale of the Placement Shares, the Agent has acted at arms’ length and no fiduciary or advisory relationship between the Company or any of its respective affiliates, stockholders (or other equity holders), creditors or employees or any other party, on the one hand, and the Agent, on the other hand, has been or will be created in respect of any of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, irrespective of whether the Agent has advised or is advising the Company on other matters and the Agent has no duties or obligations to the Company with respect to the transactions contemplated by this Agreement except the obligations expressly set forth herein;

(b) the Company is capable of evaluating, and understanding and understands and accepts, the terms, risks and conditions of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement;

(c) neither the Agent nor its affiliates have provided any legal, accounting, regulatory or tax advice with respect to the transactions contemplated by this Agreement and it has consulted its own legal, accounting, regulatory and tax advisors to the extent it has deemed appropriate;

(d) the Company has been advised and is aware that the Agent and its affiliates are engaged in a broad range of transactions which may involve interests that differ from those of the Company and that the Agent and its affiliates have no obligation to disclose such interests and transactions to the Company by virtue of any fiduciary, advisory or agency relationship or otherwise; and

(e) the Company waives, to the fullest extent permitted by law, any claims it may have against the Agent or its affiliates for breach of fiduciary duty or alleged breach of fiduciary duty in connection with the transactions contemplated by this Agreement and agrees that the Agent and its affiliates shall have no liability (whether direct or indirect) to the Company in respect of such a fiduciary claim or to any person asserting a fiduciary duty claim on behalf of or in right of the Company, including stockholders (or other equity holders), creditors or employees of the Company.

 

35


21. Recognition of the U.S. Special Resolution Regimes. In the event that the Agent is a Covered Entity and becomes subject to a proceeding under a U.S. Special Resolution Regime, the transfer from the Agent of this Agreement, and any interest and obligation in or under this Agreement, will be effective to the same extent as the transfer would be effective under the U.S. Special Resolution Regime if this Agreement, and any such interest and obligation, were governed by the laws of the United States or a state of the United States.

In the event that the Agent is a Covered Entity and the Agent or a BHC Act Affiliate of the Agent becomes subject to a proceeding under a U.S. Special Resolution Regime, Default Rights under this Agreement that may be exercised against the Agent are permitted to be exercised to no greater extent than such Default Rights could be exercised under the U.S. Special Resolution Regime if this Agreement were governed by the laws of the United States or a state of the United States.

For purposes of this Agreement, (A) “BHC Act Affiliate” has the meaning assigned to the term “affiliate” in, and shall be interpreted in accordance with, 12 U.S.C. § 1841(k); (B) “Covered Entity” means any of the following: (i) a “covered entity” as that term is defined in, and interpreted in accordance with, 12 C.F.R. § 252.82(b); (ii) a “covered bank” as that term is defined in, and interpreted in accordance with, 12 C.F.R. § 47.3(b); or (iii) a “covered FSI” as that term is defined in, and interpreted in accordance with, 12 C.F.R. § 382.2(b); (C) “Default Right” has the meaning assigned to that term in, and shall be interpreted in accordance with, 12 C.F.R. §§ 252.81, 47.2 or 382.1, as applicable; and (D) “U.S. Special Resolution Regime” means each of (i) the Federal Deposit Insurance Act and the regulations promulgated thereunder and (ii) Title II of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act and the regulations promulgated thereunder.

22. Counterparts. This Agreement may be executed in two or more counterparts, each of which shall be deemed an original, but all of which together shall constitute one and the same instrument. Delivery of an executed Agreement by one party to the other may be made by facsimile or electronic transmission. Counterparts may be delivered via facsimile, electronic mail (including any electronic signature covered by the U.S. federal ESIGN Act of 2000, Uniform Electronic Transactions Act, the Electronic Signatures and Records Act or other applicable law, e.g., www.docusign.com) or other transmission method and any counterpart so delivered shall be deemed to have been duly and validly delivered and be valid and effective for all purposes.

23. Use of Information. The Agent may not provide any information gained in connection with this Agreement and the transactions contemplated by this Agreement, including due diligence, to any third party other than its legal counsel advising it on this Agreement and the transactions contemplated by this Agreement unless expressly approved by the Company in writing.

24. Agent’s Information. As used in this Agreement, “Agent’s Information” means solely the following information in the Registration Statement and the Prospectus: the eighth paragraph under the heading “Plan of Distribution” in the Prospectus Supplement.

All references in this Agreement to the Registration Statement, the Prospectus or any amendment or supplement to any of the foregoing shall be deemed to include the copy filed with the Commission pursuant to EDGAR. All references in this Agreement to financial statements and schedules and other information that is “contained,” “included” or “stated” in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus (and all other references of like import) shall be deemed to mean and include all such financial statements and schedules and other information that is incorporated by reference in the Registration Statement or the Prospectus, as the case may be.

 

36


All references in this Agreement to “supplements” to the Prospectus shall include any supplements, “wrappers” or similar materials prepared in connection with any offering, sale or private placement of any Placement Shares by the Agent outside of the United States.

[Remainder of Page Intentionally Blank]

 

37


If the foregoing correctly sets forth the understanding between the Company and the Agent, please so indicate in the space provided below for that purpose, whereupon this letter shall constitute a binding agreement between the Company and the Agent.

 

Very truly yours,
CULLINAN ONCOLOGY, INC.
By:  

/s/ Jeffrey Trigilio

  Name: Jeffrey Trigilio
  Title: Chief Financial Officer
ACCEPTED as of the date first-above written:
SVB SECURITIES LLC
By:  

/s/ Peter M. Fry

  Name: Peter M. Fry
  Title: Head of Alternative Equities


SCHEDULE 1

FORM OF PLACEMENT NOTICE

 

From:   [                     ]
 

[TITLE]

Cullinan Oncology, Inc.

Cc:   [                     ]
To:   SVB Securities LLC
Subject:   SVB Securities—At the Market Offering—Placement Notice

Ladies and Gentlemen:

Pursuant to the terms and subject to the conditions contained in the Sales Agreement, dated March 9, 2023 (the “Agreement”), by and between Cullinan Oncology, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and SVB Securities LLC (“SVB Securities”), I hereby request on behalf of the Company that SVB Securities sell up to [    ] shares of common stock, $0.0001 par value per share, of the Company (the “Shares”), at a minimum market price of $     per share[; provided that no more than [    ] Shares shall be sold in any one Trading Day (as such term is defined in Section 3 of the Agreement)]. Sales should begin [on the date of this Placement Notice] and end on [DATE] [until all Shares that are the subject of this Placement Notice are sold].


SCHEDULE 2

The Company

Nadim Ahmed

Jeffrey Trigilio

SVB Securities

Dan Dubin, M.D.

Sean Pitt

atm@svbsecurities.com


SCHEDULE 3

Compensation

The Company shall pay SVB Securities compensation in cash of up to 3.0% of the gross proceeds from the sales of Placement Shares pursuant to the terms of the Sales Agreement of which this Schedule 3 forms a part.


Exhibit 7(m)

OFFICERS’ CERTIFICATE

Each of Nadim Ahmed, the duly qualified and elected Chief Executive Officer of Cullinan Oncology, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and Jeffrey Trigilio, the duly qualified and elected Chief Financial Officer of the Company, does hereby certify in his respective capacity and on behalf of the Company, pursuant to Section 7(m) of the Sales Agreement, dated March 9, 2023 (the “Sales Agreement”), by and between the Company and SVB Securities LLC, that, after due inquiry, to the best of the knowledge of the undersigned:

(i) The representations and warranties of the Company in Section 6 of the Sales Agreement (A) to the extent such representations and warranties are subject to qualifications and exceptions contained therein relating to materiality or Material Adverse Effect, are true and correct on and as of the date hereof with the same force and effect as if expressly made on and as of the date hereof (except that those representations and warranties that address matters only as of a particular date were true and correct as of such date), and (B) to the extent such representations and warranties are not subject to any qualifications or exceptions relating to materiality or Material Adverse Effect, are true and correct in all material respects as of the date hereof as if made on and as of the date hereof with the same force and effect as if expressly made on and as of the date hereof (except that those representations and warranties that address matters only as of a particular date were true and correct as of such date).

(ii) The Company has complied with all agreements and satisfied all conditions on its part to be performed or satisfied pursuant to the Sales Agreement at or prior to the date hereof.

(iii) The maximum amount of Placement Shares that may be sold pursuant to the Sales Agreement has been duly authorized by the Company’s board of directors or a duly authorized committee thereof pursuant to a resolution or unanimous written consent in accordance with the Company’s amended and restated articles of incorporation, amended and restated bylaws and applicable law.

Capitalized terms used but not defined herein shall have the meanings ascribed to them in the Sales Agreement.

IN WITNESS WHEREOF, each of the undersigned, in such individual’s respective capacity as Chief Executive Officer or Chief Financial Officer of the Company, has executed this Officers’ Certificate on behalf of the Company.

 

By:  

                                  

  Name: Nadim Ahmed
  Title: Chief Executive Officer
  Date:
By:  

 

  Name: Jeffrey Trigilio
  Title: Chief Financial Officer
  Date:

 

EX-4.3

Exhibit 4.3

CULLINAN ONCOLOGY, INC.

and

[    ], as Trustee

INDENTURE

Dated as of [    ], [    ]


TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

ARTICLE 1.

  DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE      1  

1.1.

  DEFINITIONS      1  

1.2.

  INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE OF TRUST INDENTURE ACT      5  

1.3.

  RULES OF CONSTRUCTION      5  

ARTICLE 2.

  THE SECURITIES      6  

2.1.

  ISSUABLE IN SERIES      6  

2.2.

  ESTABLISHMENT OF TERMS OF SERIES OF SECURITIES      6  

2.3.

  EXECUTION AND AUTHENTICATION      8  

2.4.

  REGISTRAR AND PAYING AGENT      10  

2.5.

  PAYING AGENT TO HOLD ASSETS IN TRUST      10  

2.6.

  SECURITYHOLDER LISTS      11  

2.7.

  TRANSFER AND EXCHANGE      11  

2.8.

  REPLACEMENT SECURITIES      12  

2.9.

  OUTSTANDING SECURITIES      12  

2.10.

  WHEN TREASURY SECURITIES DISREGARDED; DETERMINATION OF HOLDERS’ ACTION      12  

2.11.

  TEMPORARY SECURITIES      13  

2.12.

  CANCELLATION      13  

2.13.

  PAYMENT OF INTEREST; DEFAULTED INTEREST; COMPUTATION OF INTEREST      13  

2.14.

  CUSIP NUMBER      14  

2.15.

  PROVISIONS FOR GLOBAL SECURITIES      14  

2.16.

  PERSONS DEEMED OWNERS      15  

ARTICLE 3.

  REDEMPTION      16  

3.1.

  NOTICES TO TRUSTEE      16  

3.2.

  SELECTION BY TRUSTEE OF SECURITIES TO BE REDEEMED      16  

 

-i-


3.3.

  NOTICE OF REDEMPTION      17  

3.4.

  EFFECT OF NOTICE OF REDEMPTION      18  

3.5.

  DEPOSIT OF REDEMPTION PRICE      18  

3.6.

  SECURITIES REDEEMED IN PART      18  

ARTICLE 4.

  COVENANTS      18  

4.1.

  PAYMENT OF SECURITIES      18  

4.2.

  SEC REPORTS      19  

4.3.

  WAIVER OF STAY, EXTENSION OR USURY LAWS      19  

4.4.

  COMPLIANCE CERTIFICATE      20  

4.5.

  CORPORATE EXISTENCE      20  

ARTICLE 5.

  SUCCESSOR CORPORATION      21  

5.1.

  LIMITATION ON CONSOLIDATION, MERGER AND SALE OF ASSETS      21  

5.2.

  SUCCESSOR PERSON SUBSTITUTED      21  

ARTICLE 6.

  DEFAULTS AND REMEDIES      21  

6.1.

  EVENTS OF DEFAULT      21  

6.2.

  ACCELERATION      23  

6.3.

  REMEDIES      23  

6.4.

  WAIVER OF PAST DEFAULTS AND EVENTS OF DEFAULT      24  

6.5.

  CONTROL BY MAJORITY      24  

6.6.

  LIMITATION ON SUITS      24  

6.7.

  RIGHTS OF HOLDERS TO RECEIVE PAYMENT      25  

6.8.

  COLLECTION SUIT BY TRUSTEE      25  

6.9.

  TRUSTEE MAY FILE PROOFS OF CLAIM      25  

6.10.

  PRIORITIES      26  

6.11.

  UNDERTAKING FOR COSTS      26  

 

-ii-


ARTICLE 7.

  TRUSTEE      26  

7.1.

  DUTIES OF TRUSTEE      26  

7.2.

  RIGHTS OF TRUSTEE      28  

7.3.

  INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS OF TRUSTEE      29  

7.4.

  TRUSTEE’S DISCLAIMER      29  

7.5.

  NOTICE OF DEFAULT      30  

7.6.

  REPORTS BY TRUSTEE TO HOLDERS      30  

7.7.

  COMPENSATION AND INDEMNITY      30  

7.8.

  REPLACEMENT OF TRUSTEE      31  

7.9.

  SUCCESSOR TRUSTEE BY CONSOLIDATION, MERGER OR CONVERSION      32  

7.10.

  ELIGIBILITY; DISQUALIFICATION      32  

7.11.

  PREFERENTIAL COLLECTION OF CLAIMS AGAINST COMPANY      33  

7.12.

  PAYING AGENTS      33  

ARTICLE 8.

  AMENDMENTS, SUPPLEMENTS AND WAIVERS      33  

8.1.

  WITHOUT CONSENT OF HOLDERS      33  

8.2.

  WITH CONSENT OF HOLDERS      34  

8.3.

  COMPLIANCE WITH TRUST INDENTURE ACT      35  

8.4.

  REVOCATION AND EFFECT OF CONSENTS      35  

8.5.

  NOTATION ON OR EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES      36  

8.6.

  TRUSTEE TO SIGN AMENDMENTS, ETC      36  

ARTICLE 9.

  DISCHARGE OF INDENTURE; DEFEASANCE      36  

9.1.

  DISCHARGE OF INDENTURE      36  

9.2.

  LEGAL DEFEASANCE      37  

9.3.

  COVENANT DEFEASANCE      37  

9.4.

  CONDITIONS TO LEGAL DEFEASANCE OR COVENANT DEFEASANCE      38  

 

-iii-


9.5.

  DEPOSITED MONEY AND U.S. AND FOREIGN GOVERNMENT OBLIGATIONS TO BE HELD IN TRUST; OTHER MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS      39  

9.6.

  REINSTATEMENT      39  

9.7.

  MONEYS HELD BY PAYING AGENT      40  

9.8.

  MONEYS HELD BY TRUSTEE      40  

ARTICLE 10.

  MISCELLANEOUS      40  

10.1.

  TRUST INDENTURE ACT CONTROLS      40  

10.2.

  NOTICES      41  

10.3.

  COMMUNICATIONS BY HOLDERS WITH OTHER HOLDERS      43  

10.4.

  CERTIFICATE AND OPINION AS TO CONDITIONS PRECEDENT      43  

10.5.

  STATEMENT REQUIRED IN CERTIFICATE AND OPINION      43  

10.6.

  RULES BY TRUSTEE AND AGENTS      44  

10.7.

  BUSINESS DAYS; LEGAL HOLIDAYS; PLACE OF PAYMENT      44  

10.8.

  GOVERNING LAW      44  

10.9.

  NO ADVERSE INTERPRETATION OF OTHER AGREEMENTS      44  

10.10.

  NO RECOURSE AGAINST OTHERS      44  

10.11.

  SUCCESSORS      44  

10.12.

  MULTIPLE COUNTERPARTS      45  

10.13.

  TABLE OF CONTENTS, HEADINGS, ETC.      45  

10.14.

  SEVERABILITY      45  

10.15.

  SECURITIES IN A FOREIGN CURRENCY OR IN EUROS      45  

10.16.

  JUDGMENT CURRENCY      46  

 

-iv-


CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE

 

TIA SECTION

  

INDENTURE SECTION

310(a)(1)(2)(5)

   7.10

310(a)(3)(4)

   Inapplicable

310(b)

   7.8; 7.10

310(c)

   Inapplicable

311(a)(b)

   7.11

311(c)

   Inapplicable

312(a)

   2.6

312(b)(c)

   10.3

313(a)(b)

   7.6

313(c)

   7.6; 10.2

313(d)

   7.6

314(a)

   4.2; 4.4; 10.2

314(b)

   N/A

314(c)(1)(2)

   10.4; 10.5

314(c)(3)

   Inapplicable

314(d)

   Inapplicable

314(e)

   10.5

314(f)

   Inapplicable

315(a)

   7.1, 7.2

315(b)

   7.5; 10.2

315(c)

   7.1

315(d)

   7.1; 7.2

 

-v-


TIA SECTION

  

INDENTURE SECTION

315(e)    6.11
316(a)(last sentence)    2.10
316(a)(1)(A)    6.5
316(a)(1)(B)    6.4
316(a)(2)    8.2
316(b)    6.7
316(c)    8.4
317(a)(1)    6.8
317(a)(2)    6.9
317(b)    2.5; 7.12
318(a)    10.1

 

Note: This Cross-Reference Table shall not, for any purpose, be deemed to be a part of the Indenture.

 

 

-vi-


INDENTURE, dated as of [    ], [    ] by and between Cullinan Oncology, Inc., a Delaware corporation, as Issuer (the “Company”) and [    ], as Trustee (the “Trustee”).

RECITALS OF THE COMPANY

The Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide for the issuance from time to time of its debentures, notes or other evidences of indebtedness to be issued in one or more series (the “Securities”), as herein provided, up to such principal amount as may from time to time be authorized in or pursuant to one or more resolutions of the Board of Directors or by supplemental indenture.

All things necessary to make this Indenture a valid agreement of the Company in accordance with its terms have been done, and the execution and delivery thereof have been in all respects duly authorized by the parties hereto.

NOW, THEREFORE, THIS INDENTURE WITNESSETH:

For and in consideration of the premises and the purchase of the Securities by the Holders thereof, it is mutually agreed, for the equal and proportionate benefit of all Holders of the Securities of a Series thereof, as follows:

ARTICLE 1.

DEFINITIONS AND INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE

 

1.1.

DEFINITIONS.

“Affiliate” of any specified Person means any other Person which, directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, controls, or is controlled by or is under common control with, such specified Person. For the purposes of this definition, “control” (including, with correlative meanings, the terms “controlling,” “controlled by” and “under common control with”), as used with respect to any Person, means the possession, directly or indirectly, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management or policies of such Person, whether through the ownership of voting securities, by agreement or otherwise.

“Agent” means any Registrar, Paying Agent, co-registrar or agent for service of notices and demands.

“Board of Directors” means the Board of Directors of the Company or any committee duly authorized to act therefor.

“Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified pursuant to an Officers’ Certificate to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors of the Company and to be in full force and effect on the date of such certification which has been delivered to the Trustee.

“Capital Stock” means, with respect to any Person, any and all shares or other equivalents (however designated) of capital stock, shares, partnership interests or any other participation, right or other interest in the nature of an equity interest in such Person or any option, warrant or other security convertible into any of the foregoing.

 

-1-


“Company” means the party named as such in the first paragraph of this Indenture until a successor replaces such party pursuant to ARTICLE 5 of this Indenture, and thereafter means the successor and any other primary obligor on the Securities.

“Company Order” means a written order signed in the name of the Company by two Officers, one of whom must be its Chief Executive Officer, its Chief Business Officer or its Chief Financial Officer.

“Company Request” means any written request signed in the name of the Company by its Chief Executive Officer, its President, its Global Controller, its Vice President, Legal (U.S.), its Chief Business Officer, its Chief Financial Officer or its Treasurer] and attested to by any of its Chief Executive Officer, its President, its Global Controller, its Vice President, Legal (U.S.), its Chief Business Officer, its Chief Financial Officer or its treasurer; provided, however, that the signatory and attestor shall be different persons.

“Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at the address specified in Section 10.2 or such other address as to which the Trustee may give notice to the Company.

“Default” means any event that is, or that with the passing of time or giving of notice or both would be, an Event of Default.

“Depository” means, with respect to the Securities of any Series issuable or issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities, the Person designated as Depository for such Series by the Company, which Depository shall be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act, until a successor Depository shall have become such pursuant to the applicable provisions of this Indenture, and thereafter “Depository” shall mean each Person who is then a Depository hereunder, and if at any time there is more than one such Person, such Persons.

“Dollars” means the currency of the United States of America.

“Euro” means the single currency of participating member states of the economic and monetary union as contemplated in the Treaty on European Union.

“Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

“Foreign Currency” means any currency or currency unit issued by a government other than the government of the United States of America.

“Foreign Government Obligations” means, with respect to Securities that are denominated in a Foreign Currency, (i) direct obligations of the government that issued or caused to be issued such currency for the payment of which obligations its full faith and credit is pledged or (ii) obligations of a Person controlled or supervised by, or acting as an agency or instrumentality of, such government, the timely payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by such government, which, in either case under clauses (i) and (ii), are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof.

 

-2-


“GAAP” means generally accepted accounting principles consistently applied as in effect in the United States of America from time to time.

“Global Security” or “Global Securities” means a Security or Securities, as the case may be, in the form established pursuant to Section 2.2, evidencing all or part of a Series of Securities issued to the Depository for such Series or its nominee, and registered in the name of such Depository or nominee, and bearing the legend set forth in Section 2.15(c) (or such other legend(s) as may be applied to such Securities in accordance with Section 2.2(24)).

“Holder” or “Securityholder” means the Person in whose name a Security is registered on the Registrar’s books.

“Indebtedness” means (without duplication), with respect to any Person, any indebtedness at any time outstanding, secured or unsecured, contingent or otherwise, which is for borrowed money (whether or not the recourse of the lender is to the whole of the assets of such Person or only to a portion thereof), or evidenced by bonds, notes, debentures or similar instruments, or representing the balance deferred and unpaid of the purchase price of any property (excluding any balances that constitute accounts payable or trade payables, and other accrued liabilities arising in the ordinary course of business), if and to the extent any of the foregoing indebtedness would appear as a liability upon a balance sheet of such Person prepared in accordance with GAAP.

“Indenture” means this Indenture as amended, restated or supplemented from time to time.

“Interest Payment Date,” when used with respect to any Security, means the Stated Maturity of an installment of interest on such Security.

“Lien” means, with respect to any property or assets of any Person, any mortgage or deed of trust, pledge, hypothecation, assignment, deposit arrangement, security interest, lien, charge, easement, encumbrance, preference, priority or other security agreement or preferential arrangement of any kind or nature whatsoever on or with respect to such property or assets (including, without limitation, any capitalized lease obligation, conditional sales or other title retention agreement having substantially the same economic effect as any of the foregoing).

“Maturity,” when used with respect to any Security, means the date on which the principal of such Security, or an installment of principal, becomes due and payable as therein or herein provided, whether at the Stated Maturity or by declaration of acceleration, call for redemption, notice of option to elect payment or otherwise.

“Officer” means the [Chief Executive Officer, the President, any Vice President, the Chief Operating Officer, the Chief Financial Officer, the Treasurer or the Secretary] of the Company, or any other officer designated by the Board of Directors, as the case may be.

“Officers’ Certificate” means, with respect to any Person, a certificate signed by the [Chairman, Chief Executive Officer, President or any Senior or Executive Vice President and the Chief Operating Officer, Chief Financial Officer or any Treasurer of such Person], that shall comply with applicable provisions of this Indenture.

 

-3-


“Opinion of Counsel” means a written opinion from legal counsel, which counsel is reasonably acceptable to the Trustee. The counsel may be an employee of or counsel to the Company.

“Person” means any individual, corporation, limited liability company, partnership, joint venture, association, joint-stock company, trust, unincorporated organization or government (including any agency or political subdivision thereof).

“Redemption Date,” when used with respect to any Security to be redeemed, means the date fixed for such redemption pursuant to this Indenture.

“Responsible Officer,” when used with respect to the Trustee, means any officer within the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee including any vice president, assistant vice president, assistant secretary, assistant treasurer or any other officer of the Trustee who shall have direct responsibility for the administration of this Indenture, or any other officer of the Trustee to whom such matter is referred because of his or her knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject.

“SEC” means the United States Securities and Exchange Commission as constituted from time to time, or any successor performing substantially the same functions.

“Securities” means the securities that are issued under this Indenture, as amended or supplemented from time to time pursuant to this Indenture.

“Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

“Series” or “Series of Securities” means each series of debentures, notes or other debt instruments of the Company created pursuant to Sections 2.1 and 2.2.

“Significant Subsidiary” means (i) any direct or indirect Subsidiary of the Company that would be a “significant subsidiary” as defined in ARTICLE 1, Rule 1-02 of Regulation S-X, promulgated pursuant to the Securities Act, as such regulation is in effect on the date hereof, or (ii) any group of direct or indirect Subsidiaries of the Company that, taken together as a group, would be a “significant subsidiary” as defined in ARTICLE 1, Rule 1-02 of Regulation S-X, promulgated pursuant to the Securities Act, as such regulation is in effect on the date hereof.

“Stated Maturity,” when used with respect to any Security or any installment of principal thereof or interest thereon, means the date specified in such Security as the fixed date on which the principal of such Security, or such installment of principal or interest, is due and payable, and when used with respect to any other Indebtedness, means the date specified in the instrument governing such Indebtedness as the fixed date on which the principal of such Indebtedness, or any installment of interest thereon, is due and payable.

“Subsidiary” of any specified Person means any corporation, limited liability company, partnership, joint venture, association or other business entity, whether now existing or hereafter organized or acquired, (i) in the case of a corporation, of which more than 50% of the total voting power of the Capital Stock entitled (without regard to the occurrence of any contingency) to vote in the election of directors thereof is held, directly or indirectly, by such Person or any of its Subsidiaries; or (ii) in the case of a partnership, joint venture, association or other business entity, with respect to which such Person or any of its Subsidiaries has the power to direct or cause the direction of the management and policies of such entity by contract or otherwise, or if in accordance with GAAP such entity is consolidated with such Person for financial statement purposes.

 

-4-


“TIA” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939 (15 U.S. Code Section 77aaa-77bbbb) as in effect on the date of this Indenture (except as provided in Section 8.3).

“Trustee” means the party named as such in this Indenture until a successor replaces it pursuant to this Indenture, and thereafter means the successor, and if at any time there is more than one such Person, “Trustee” as used with respect to the Securities of any Series shall mean the Trustee with respect to Securities of that Series.

“U.S. Government Obligations” means direct non-callable obligations of, or non-callable obligations guaranteed by, the United States of America for the payment of which obligation or guarantee the full faith and credit of the United States of America is pledged.

 

1.2.

INCORPORATION BY REFERENCE OF TRUST INDENTURE ACT.

Whenever this Indenture refers to a provision of the TIA, the portion of such provision required to be incorporated herein in order for this Indenture to be qualified under the TIA is incorporated by reference in and made a part of this Indenture. The following TIA terms used in this Indenture have the following meanings:

“Commission” means the SEC.

“indenture securities” means the Securities.

“indenture securityholder” means a Holder or Securityholder.

“indenture to be qualified” means this Indenture.

“indenture trustee” or “institutional trustee” means the Trustee.

“obligor on the indenture securities” means the Company.

All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined by the TIA, defined in the TIA by reference to another statute or defined by SEC rule have the meanings therein assigned to them.

 

1.3.

RULES OF CONSTRUCTION.

Unless the context otherwise requires:

(1) a term has the meaning assigned to it herein, whether defined expressly or by reference;

(2) an accounting term not otherwise defined has the meaning assigned to it in accordance with GAAP;

 

-5-


(3) “or” is not exclusive;

(4) words in the singular include the plural, and in the plural include the singular;

(5) words used herein implying any gender shall apply to each gender; and

(6) the words “herein”, “hereof” and “hereunder” and other words of similar import refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision.

ARTICLE 2.

THE SECURITIES

 

2.1.

ISSUABLE IN SERIES.

The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is $[ ]. The Securities may be issued in one or more Series. All Securities of a Series shall be identical except as may be set forth in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture or an Officers’ Certificate detailing the adoption of the terms thereof pursuant to the authority granted under a Board Resolution. In the case of Securities of a Series to be issued from time to time, the Board Resolution, Officers’ Certificate or supplemental indenture may provide for the method by which specified terms (such as interest rate, Stated Maturity, record date or date from which interest shall accrue) are to be determined. Securities may differ between Series in respect of any matters, PROVIDED, that all Series of Securities shall be equally and ratably entitled to the benefits of the Indenture.

 

2.2.

ESTABLISHMENT OF TERMS OF SERIES OF SECURITIES.

At or prior to the issuance of any Securities within a Series, the following shall be established (as to the Series generally, in the case of Subsection 2.2(1) and either as to such Securities within the Series or as to the Series generally in the case of Subsections 2.2(2) through 2.2(24)) by a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture or an Officers’ Certificate, in each case, pursuant to authority granted under a Board Resolution:

(1) the title of the Series (which shall distinguish the Securities of that particular Series from the Securities of any other Series);

(2) any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of the Series which may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of the Series pursuant to Section 2.7, 2.8, 2.11, 3.6 or 8.5);

(3) the price or prices (expressed as a percentage of the principal amount thereof) at which the Securities of the Series will be issued;

(4) the date or dates on which the principal of the Securities of the Series is payable;

 

-6-


(5) the rate or rates (which may be fixed or variable) per annum or, if applicable, the method used to determine such rate or rates (including, but not limited to, any commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index) at which the Securities of the Series shall bear interest, if any, the date or dates from which such interest, if any, shall accrue, the date or dates on which such interest, if any, shall commence and be payable and any regular record date for the interest payable on any Interest Payment Date;

(6) the place or places where the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities of the Series shall be payable, or the method of such payment, if by wire transfer, mail or other means;

(7) if applicable, the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which the Securities of the Series may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Company;

(8) the obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem or purchase the Securities of the Series pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions or at the option of a Holder thereof, and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which Securities of the Series shall be redeemed or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

(9) the dates, if any, on which and the price or prices at which the Securities of the Series will be repurchased by the Company at the option of the Holders thereof, and other detailed terms and provisions of such repurchase obligations;

(10) if other than denominations of $1,000 and any integral multiple thereof, the denominations in which the Securities of the Series shall be issuable;

(11) the forms of the Securities of the Series in bearer (if to be issued outside of the United States of America) or fully registered form (and, if in fully registered form, whether the Securities will be issuable as Global Securities);

(12) if other than the principal amount thereof, the portion of the principal amount of the Securities of the Series that shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the Maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.2;

(13) the currency of denomination of the Securities of the Series, which may be Dollars or any Foreign Currency, including, but not limited to, the Euro, and, if such currency of denomination is a composite currency other than the Euro, the agency or organization, if any, responsible for overseeing such composite currency;

(14) the designation of the currency, currencies or currency units in which payment of the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities of the Series will be made;

(15) if payments of principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, the Securities of the Series are to be made in one or more currencies or currency units other than that or those in which such Securities are denominated, the manner in which the exchange rate with respect to such payments will be determined;

 

-7-


(16) the manner in which the amounts of payment of principal of, or interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities of the Series will be determined, if such amounts may be determined by reference to an index based on a currency or currencies or by reference to a commodity, commodity index, stock exchange index or financial index;

(17) the provisions, if any, relating to any collateral provided for the Securities of the Series;

(18) any addition to or change in the covenants set forth in ARTICLE 4 or ARTICLE 5 that applies to Securities of the Series;

(19) any addition to or change in the Events of Default which applies to any Securities of the Series, and any change in the right of the Trustee or the requisite Holders of such Securities to declare the principal amount thereof due and payable pursuant to Section 6.2;

(20) the terms and conditions, if any, for conversion of the Securities into or exchange of the Securities for shares of common stock or preferred stock of the Company that apply to Securities of the Series;

(21) any depositories, interest rate calculation agents, exchange rate calculation agents or other agents with respect to Securities of such Series if other than those appointed herein;

(22) the terms and conditions, if any, upon which the Securities shall be subordinated in right of payment to other Indebtedness of the Company;

(23) if applicable, that the Securities of the Series, in whole or any specified part, shall be defeasible pursuant to Article 9; and

(24) any other terms of the Securities of the Series (which terms shall not be inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture, except as permitted by Section 8.1, but which may modify or delete any provision of this Indenture insofar as it applies to such Series).

(25) All Securities of any one Series need not be issued at the same time, and may be issued from time to time, consistent with the terms of this Indenture, if so provided by or pursuant to the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officers’ Certificate referred to above, however, the authorized principal amount of any Series may not be increased to provide for issuances of additional Securities of such Series, unless otherwise provided in such Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officers’ Certificate.

 

2.3.

EXECUTION AND AUTHENTICATION.

The Securities shall be executed on behalf of the Company by two Officers of the Company or an Officer and an Assistant Secretary of the Company. Each such signature may be either manual, electronic or facsimile. The Company’s seal may be impressed, affixed, imprinted or reproduced on the Securities and may be in facsimile form.

 

-8-


If an Officer whose signature is on a Security no longer holds that office at the time the Security is authenticated, the Security shall nevertheless be valid.

A Security shall not be valid until authenticated by the manual signature of the Trustee or an authenticating agent. The signature shall be conclusive evidence that the Security has been authenticated under this Indenture. The Trustee shall at any time, and from time to time, authenticate Securities for original issue in the principal amount provided in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers’ Certificate, upon receipt by the Trustee of a Company Order. Such Company Order may authorize authentication and delivery pursuant to oral or electronic instructions from the Company or its duly authorized agent or agents, which oral instructions shall be promptly confirmed in writing. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication.

The aggregate principal amount of Securities of any Series outstanding at any time may not exceed any limit upon the maximum principal amount for such Series set forth in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers’ Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2, except as provided in Section 2.8.

Prior to the issuance of Securities of any Series, the Trustee shall have received and (subject to Section 7.1) shall be fully protected in relying on: (a) the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers’ Certificate establishing the form of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series and the terms of the Securities of that Series or of Securities within that Series, (b) an Officers’ Certificate complying with Section 10.4, and (c) an Opinion of Counsel complying with Section 10.4.

The Trustee shall have the right to decline to authenticate and deliver any Securities of any Series: (a) if the Trustee, being advised in writing by outside counsel, determines that such action may not lawfully be taken; or (b) if the Trustee in good faith shall reasonably determine that such action would expose the Trustee to personal liability, or cause it to have a conflict of interest with respect to Holders of any then outstanding Series of Securities.

The Trustee may appoint an authenticating agent acceptable to the Company to authenticate Securities. An authenticating agent may authenticate Securities whenever the Trustee may do so. Any appointment shall be evidenced by an instrument signed by an authorized officer of the Trustee, a copy of which shall be furnished to the Company. Each reference in this Indenture to authentication by the Trustee includes authentication by such agent. An authenticating agent has the same rights as an Agent to deal with the Company or an Affiliate of the Company.

 

-9-


2.4.

REGISTRAR AND PAYING AGENT.

The Company shall maintain in each Place of Payment for any Series of Securities (i) an office or agency where such Securities may be presented for registration of transfer or for exchange (“Registrar”), (ii) an office or agency where such Securities may be presented for payment (“Paying Agent”), and PROVIDED, FURTHER, that at the option of the Company payment of interest may be made by check mailed to the address of the Person entitled thereto as such address shall appear in the register for the Securities maintained by the Registrar), and (iii) an office or agency where notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities and this Indenture may be served (“Service Agent”). The Registrar shall keep a register of the Securities and of their transfer and exchange. The Company may have one or more co-registrars and one or more additional paying agents. The Company shall give prompt written notice to the Trustee of the location, and any change in the location, of such office or agency. If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required office, or to furnish the Trustee with the address thereof, such presentations, surrenders, notices and demands may be made or served at the address of the Trustee as set forth in Section 10.2; except for any service of process upon the Company. If the Company acts as Paying Agent, it shall segregate the money held by it for the payment of principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities and hold it as a separate trust fund. The Company may change any Paying Agent, Registrar, co-registrar or any other Agent without notice to any Securityholder.

The Company may also from time to time designate one or more other offices or agencies where the Securities may be presented or surrendered for any or all such purposes, and may from time to time rescind such designations; PROVIDED, HOWEVER, that no such designation or rescission shall in any manner relieve the Company of its obligation to maintain an office or agency in each Place of Payment for Securities of any Series for such purposes. The Company hereby initially designates the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee as such office of the Company. The Company shall give prompt written notice to the Trustee of such designation or rescission, and of any change in the location of any such other office or agency.

The Company shall enter into an appropriate agency agreement with any Registrar or Paying Agent not a party to this Indenture. The agreement shall implement the provisions of this Indenture that relate to such Agent. The Company shall notify the Trustee in writing of the name and address of any such Agent. If the Company fails to maintain a Registrar or Paying Agent, or agent for service of notices and demands, or fails to give the foregoing notice, the Trustee shall act as such. The Company hereby appoints the Trustee as the initial Registrar, Paying Agent and Service Agent for each Series unless another Registrar, Paying Agent or Service Agent, as the case may be, is appointed prior to the time Securities of that Series are first issued.

 

2.5.

PAYING AGENT TO HOLD ASSETS IN TRUST.

The Trustee as Paying Agent shall, and the Company shall require each Paying Agent other than the Trustee to agree in writing that each Paying Agent shall, hold in trust for the benefit of the Holders of any Series of Securities or the Trustee all assets held by the Paying Agent for the payment of principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, such Series of Securities (whether such assets have been distributed to it by the Company or any other obligor on such Series of Securities), and the Company and the Paying Agent shall notify the Trustee in writing of any Default by the Company (or any other obligor on such Series of Securities) in making any such payment. The Company at any time may require a Paying Agent to distribute all assets held by it to the Trustee and account for any assets disbursed, and the Trustee may, at any time during the continuance of any payment default with respect to any Series of Securities, upon written request to a Paying Agent, require such Paying Agent to distribute all assets held by it to the Trustee and to account for any assets distributed. Upon distribution to the Trustee of all assets that shall have been delivered by the Company to the Paying Agent, the Paying Agent shall have no further liability for such assets.

 

-10-


2.6.

SECURITYHOLDER LISTS.

The Trustee shall preserve in as current a form as is reasonably practicable the most recent list available to it of the names and addresses of Securityholders of each Series of Securities. If the Trustee is not the Registrar, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee as of each regular record date for the payment of interest on the Securities of a Series and before each related Interest Payment Date, and at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing, a list in such form and as of such date as the Trustee may reasonably require of the names and addresses of Securityholders of each Series of Securities.

 

2.7.

TRANSFER AND EXCHANGE.

When Securities of a Series are presented to the Registrar with a request to register the transfer thereof, the Registrar shall register the transfer as requested if the requirements of applicable law are met, and when such Securities of a Series are presented to the Registrar with a request to exchange them for an equal principal amount of other authorized denominations of Securities of the same Series, the Registrar shall make the exchange as requested. To permit transfers and exchanges, upon surrender of any Security for registration of transfer at the office or agency maintained pursuant to Section 2.4, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate Securities at the Registrar’s request.

If Securities are issued as Global Securities, the provisions of Section 2.15 shall apply.

All Securities issued upon any registration of transfer or exchange of Securities shall be the valid obligations of the Company, evidencing the same debt, and entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture, as the Securities surrendered upon such registration of transfer or exchange.

Every Security presented or surrendered for registration of transfer or for exchange shall (if so required by the Company or the Registrar or a co-registrar) be duly endorsed, or be accompanied by a written instrument of transfer in form satisfactory to the Company and the Registrar or a co-registrar, duly executed by the Holder thereof or his attorney duly authorized in writing.

Any exchange or transfer shall be without charge, except that the Company may require payment by the Holder of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation to a transfer or exchange, but this provision shall not apply to any exchange pursuant to Section 2.11, 3.6 or 8.5. The Trustee shall not be required to register transfers of Securities of any Series, or to exchange Securities of any Series, for a period of 15 days before the record date for selection for redemption of such Securities. The Trustee shall not be required to exchange or register transfers of Securities of any Series called or being called for redemption in whole or in part, except the unredeemed portion of such Security being redeemed in part.

 

-11-


2.8.

REPLACEMENT SECURITIES.

If a mutilated Security is surrendered to the Trustee, or if the Holder of a Security presents evidence to the satisfaction of the Company and the Trustee that the Security has been lost, destroyed or wrongfully taken, the Company shall issue and the Trustee shall authenticate a replacement Security of the same Series and of like tenor and principal amount and bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding. An indemnity bond may be required by the Company or the Trustee that is sufficient in the reasonable judgment of the Company or the Trustee, as the case may be, to protect the Company, the Trustee or any Agent from any loss which any of them may suffer if a Security is replaced. The Company may charge such Holder for the Company’s out-of-pocket expenses in replacing a Security, including the fees and expenses of the Trustee. Every replacement Security shall constitute an original additional obligation of the Company, whether or not the destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be at any time enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of that Series duly issued hereunder.

 

2.9.

OUTSTANDING SECURITIES.

Securities outstanding at any time are all Securities authenticated by the Trustee, except for those canceled by it, those delivered to it for cancellation and those described in this Section 2.9 as not outstanding.

If a Security is replaced pursuant to Section 2.8 (other than a mutilated Security surrendered for replacement), it ceases to be outstanding until the Company and the Trustee receive proof satisfactory to each of them that the replaced Security is held by a bona fide purchaser. A mutilated Security ceases to be outstanding upon surrender of such Security and replacement thereof pursuant to Section 2.8.

If a Paying Agent holds on a Redemption Date or the Stated Maturity money sufficient to pay the principal of, premium, if any, and accrued interest on, Securities payable on that date, and is not prohibited from paying such money to the Holders thereof pursuant to the terms of this Indenture (PROVIDED, that if such Securities are to be redeemed, notice of such redemption has been duly given pursuant to this Indenture or provision therefor satisfactory to the Trustee has been made), then on and after that date such Securities cease to be outstanding and interest on them ceases to accrue.

A Security does not cease to be outstanding solely because the Company or an Affiliate holds the Security.

 

2.10.

WHEN TREASURY SECURITIES DISREGARDED; DETERMINATION OF HOLDERS’ ACTION.

In determining whether the Holders of the required aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any Series have concurred in any direction, waiver or consent, the Securities of any Series owned by the Company or any other obligor on such Securities, or by any Affiliate of any of them, shall be disregarded, except that for the purposes of determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying on any such direction, waiver or consent, only Securities of such Series which a Responsible Officer of the Trustee actually knows are so owned shall be so disregarded. Securities of such Series so owned which have been pledged in good faith shall not be disregarded if the pledgee establishes to the satisfaction of the Trustee the pledgee’s right so to act with respect to the Securities of such Series and that the pledgee is not the Company or any other obligor on the Securities of such Series, or an Affiliate of any of them.

 

-12-


2.11.

TEMPORARY SECURITIES.

Until definitive Securities are ready for delivery, the Company may prepare and execute, and, upon receipt of a Company Order, the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, temporary Securities. Temporary Securities shall be substantially in the form, and shall carry all rights, of definitive Securities, but may have variations that the Company considers appropriate for temporary Securities. Without unreasonable delay, the Company shall prepare and execute, and, upon receipt of a Company Order, the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, definitive Securities in exchange for temporary Securities without charge to the Holder.

 

2.12.

CANCELLATION.

All Securities surrendered for payment, redemption or registration of transfer or exchange, or for credit against any sinking fund payment, shall, if surrendered to any Person other than the Trustee, be delivered to the Trustee for cancellation. The Company may at any time deliver to the Trustee for cancellation any Securities previously authenticated and delivered hereunder which the Company may have acquired in any manner whatsoever, and may deliver to the Trustee (or to any other Person for delivery to the Trustee) for cancellation any Securities previously authenticated hereunder which the Company has not issued and sold. The Registrar and the Paying Agent shall forward to the Trustee any Securities surrendered to them for transfer, exchange or payment. The Trustee, at the written direction of the Company, or, at the written direction of the Company, the Registrar or the Paying Agent (if the Trustee is not serving in those capacities), and no one else, shall cancel and dispose of (subject to the record retention requirements of the Exchange Act and the Trustee) in accordance with its standard procedures, all Securities surrendered for transfer, exchange, payment or cancellation. If the Company shall acquire any of the Securities, such acquisition shall not operate as a redemption or satisfaction of the Indebtedness represented by such Securities unless and until the same are surrendered to the Trustee for cancellation pursuant to this Section 2.12. No Securities shall be authenticated in lieu of or in exchange for any Securities cancelled as provided in this Section 2.12, except as expressly permitted by this Indenture.

 

2.13.

PAYMENT OF INTEREST; DEFAULTED INTEREST; COMPUTATION OF INTEREST.

Except as otherwise provided as contemplated by Section 2.2 with respect to any Series of Securities, interest on any Security which is payable, and is punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date shall be paid to the Person in whose name that Security is registered at the close of business on the regular record date for such interest, as provided in the Board Resolution, supplemental indenture hereto or Officers’ Certificate establishing the terms of such Series.

 

-13-


If the Company defaults in a payment of interest on the Securities, it shall pay the defaulted amounts, plus any interest payable on defaulted amounts pursuant to Section 4.1, to the Persons who are Securityholders on a subsequent special record date, which date shall be the 15th day next preceding the date fixed by the Company for the payment of defaulted interest, or the next succeeding Business Day if such date is not a Business Day. At least 15 days before the special record date, the Company shall mail or cause to be delivered to each Securityholder, with a copy to the Trustee, a notice that states the special record date, the payment date and the amount of defaulted interest, and interest payable on such defaulted interest, if any, to be paid.

Except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.2 for Securities of any Series, interest on the Securities of each Series shall be computed on the basis of a 360-day year of twelve 30-day months.

 

2.14.

CUSIP NUMBER.

The Company in issuing the Securities may use one or more “CUSIP” numbers, and, if the Company does so, the Trustee shall use the CUSIP number(s) in notices of redemption or exchange as a convenience to Holders, PROVIDED, that any such notice may state that no representation is made as to the correctness or accuracy of the CUSIP number(s) printed in the notice or on the Securities, and that reliance may be placed only on the other identification numbers printed on the Securities, and that any such redemption or exchange shall not be affected by any defect in or omission of any such numbers. The Company shall promptly notify the Trustee in writing of any change in the “CUSIP” numbers assigned to the Securities.

 

2.15.

PROVISIONS FOR GLOBAL SECURITIES.

(a) A Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers’ Certificate shall establish whether the Securities of a Series shall be issued in whole or in part in the form of one or more Global Securities, and the Depository for such Global Securities or Securities.

(b) Notwithstanding any provisions to the contrary contained in Section 2.7 and in addition thereto, if, and only if the Depository (i) at any time is unwilling or unable to continue as Depository for such Global Security or ceases to be a clearing agency registered under the Exchange Act and (ii) a successor Depository is not appointed by the Company within 90 days after the date the Company is so informed in writing or becomes aware of the same, the Company promptly will execute and deliver to the Trustee definitive Securities, and the Trustee, upon receipt of a Company Request for the authentication and delivery of such definitive Securities (which the Company will promptly execute and deliver to the Trustee) and an Officers’ Certificate to the effect that such Global Security shall be so exchangeable, will authenticate and deliver definitive Securities, without charge, registered in such names and in such authorized denominations as the Depository shall direct in writing (pursuant to instructions from its direct and indirect participants or otherwise) in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security with like tenor and terms. Upon the exchange of a Global Security for definitive Securities, such Global Security shall be canceled by the Trustee. Unless and until it is exchanged in whole or in part for definitive Securities, as provided in this Section 2.15(b), a Global Security may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depository with respect to such Global Security to a nominee of such Depository, by a nominee of such Depository to such Depository or another nominee of such Depository or by the Depository or any such nominee to a successor Depository or a nominee of such a successor Depository.

 

-14-


(c) Any Global Security issued hereunder shall bear a legend in substantially the following form:

“This Security is a Global Security within the meaning of the Indenture hereinafter referred to, and is registered in the name of the Depository or a nominee of the Depository. This Security is exchangeable for Securities registered in the name of a Person other than the Depository or its nominee only in the limited circumstances described in the Indenture, and may not be transferred except as a whole by the Depository to a nominee of the Depository, by a nominee of the Depository to the Depository or another nominee of the Depository or by the Depository or any such nominee to a successor Depository or a nominee of such a successor Depository.”

(d) The Depository, as a Holder, may appoint agents and otherwise authorize participants to give or take any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action which a Holder is entitled to give or take under the Indenture.

(e) Notwithstanding the other provisions of this Indenture, unless otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.2, payment of the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, any Global Security shall be made to the Depository or its nominee in its capacity as the Holder thereof.

(f) Except as provided in Section 2.15(e) above, the Company, the Trustee and any Agent shall treat a Person as the Holder of such principal amount of outstanding Securities of any Series represented by a Global Security as shall be specified in a written statement of the Depository (which may be in the form of a participants’ list for such Series) with respect to such Global Security, for purposes of obtaining any consents, declarations, waivers or directions required to be given by the Holders pursuant to this Indenture, PROVIDED, that until the Trustee is so provided with a written statement, it may treat the Depository or any other Person in whose name a Global Security is registered as the owner of such Global Security for the purpose of receiving payment of the principal of, and any premium and (subject to Section 2.13) any interest on, such Global Security and for all other purposes whatsoever, and none of the Company, the Trustee or any agent of the Company or the Trustee shall be affected by notice to the contrary.

 

2.16.

PERSONS DEEMED OWNERS.

Prior to due presentment of a Security for registration of transfer, the Company, the Trustee, the Registrar and any agent of the Company, the Registrar or the Trustee may treat the Person in whose name such Security is registered as the owner of such Security for the purpose of receiving payment of the principal of, and any premium and (subject to Section 2.13) any interest on, such Security and for all other purposes whatsoever, and none of the Company, the Trustee, the Registrar or any agent of the Company, the Trustee or the Registrar shall be affected by notice to the contrary.

 

-15-


ARTICLE 3.

REDEMPTION

 

3.1.

NOTICES TO TRUSTEE.

The Company may, with respect to any Series of Securities, reserve the right to redeem and pay the Series of Securities, or may covenant to redeem and pay the Series of Securities or any part thereof, prior to the Stated Maturity thereof at such time and on such terms as provided for in such Securities or the related Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officers’ Certificate. If a Series of Securities is redeemable and the Company elects to redeem all or part of such Series of Securities, it shall notify the Trustee in writing of the Redemption Date and the principal amount of Securities to be redeemed at least 45 days (unless a shorter notice shall be satisfactory to the Trustee) before the Redemption Date. Any such notice may be canceled at any time prior to notice of such redemption being mailed to any Holder, and shall thereby be void and of no effect.

 

3.2.

SELECTION BY TRUSTEE OF SECURITIES TO BE REDEEMED.

Unless otherwise indicated for a particular Series of Securities by a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture or an Officers’ Certificate, if fewer than all of the Securities of a Series are to be redeemed, the Trustee shall select the Securities of a Series to be redeemed pro rata, by lot or by any other method that the Trustee considers fair and appropriate (unless the Company specifically directs the Trustee otherwise) subject, in the case of Global Securities, to the applicable rules and procedures of the Depository and, if such Securities are listed on any securities exchange, by a method that complies with the requirements of such exchange.

The Trustee shall make the selection from Securities of a Series outstanding and not previously called for redemption, and shall promptly notify the Company in writing of the Securities selected for redemption and, in the case of any Security selected for partial redemption, the principal amount thereof to be redeemed at least 35 but not more than 60 days before the Redemption Date. Securities of a Series in denominations of $1,000 may be redeemed only in whole. The Trustee may select for redemption portions of the principal of Securities of a Series that have denominations larger than $1,000. Securities of a Series and portions of them it selects shall be in amounts of $1,000 or, with respect to Securities of any Series issuable in other denominations pursuant to Section 2.2(10), the minimum principal denomination for each Series and integral multiples thereof. Provisions of this Indenture that apply to Securities called for redemption also apply to portions of Securities called for redemption. Notwithstanding the above, the applicable procedures of the Depository regarding the selection of Securities issued as Global Securities shall govern.

Neither the Trustee nor any Agent will have any responsibility for any action taken or not taken by the Depository. The Trustee and the Paying Agent will have no responsibility or obligation to any beneficial owner of a Global Security or a depository participant or other Person with respect to the accuracy of the records of the Depository or its nominee or of any participant or member thereof with respect to any ownership interest in the Securities or with respect to the delivery to any participant, member, beneficial owner or other Person (other than the Depository) of any notice (including any Redemption Notice) or the payment of any amount, under or with respect to such Securities. The rights of beneficial owners in any Global Securities will be exercised only through the Depository subject to the Depository Procedures. The Trustee may rely and shall be fully protected in relying upon information furnished by the Depository with respect to its members, participants and any beneficial owners

 

-16-


3.3.

NOTICE OF REDEMPTION.

Unless otherwise indicated for a particular Series by Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers’ Certificate, at least 30 days, and no more than 60 days, before a Redemption Date, the Company shall mail, or cause to be mailed, a notice of redemption by first-class mail to each Holder of Securities to be redeemed at his or her last address as the same appears on the registry books maintained by the Registrar, or, with respect to Securities issued as Global Securities, such notice shall be delivered in accordance with the applicable procedures of the Depository. The notice shall identify the Securities to be redeemed and shall state:

(1) the Redemption Date;

(2) the redemption price, and that such redemption price shall become due and payable on the Redemption Date;

(3) if any Security of a Series is being redeemed in part, the portion of the principal amount of such Security of a Series to be redeemed and that, after the Redemption Date and upon surrender of such Security of a Series, a new Security or Securities in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion will be issued;

(4) the name and address of the Paying Agent;

(5) that Securities of a Series called for redemption must be surrendered to the Paying Agent to collect the redemption price, and the place or places where each such Security is to be surrendered for such payment;

(6) that, unless the Company defaults in making the redemption payment, interest on the Securities of a Series called for redemption ceases to accrue on the Redemption Date, and the only remaining right of the Holders of such Securities is to receive payment of the redemption price upon surrender to the Paying Agent of the Securities redeemed;

(7) if fewer than all of the Securities of a Series are to be redeemed, the identification of the particular Securities of a Series (or portion thereof) to be redeemed, as well as the aggregate principal amount of Securities of a Series to be redeemed and the aggregate principal amount of Securities of a Series to be outstanding after such partial redemption.

(8) the CUSIP number, if any, printed on the Securities being redeemed; and

(9) that no representation is made as to the correctness or accuracy of the CUSIP number, if any, listed in such notice or printed on the Securities.

At the Company’s request, the Trustee shall give the notice of redemption in the Company’s name and at the Company’s sole expense; provided, however, that the Company has delivered to the Trustee prior to the notice date, an Officers’ Certificate requesting that the Trustee give such notice and setting forth the information to be stated in such notice and the form of such notice.

 

-17-


3.4.

EFFECT OF NOTICE OF REDEMPTION.

Once the notice of redemption described in Section 3.3 is delivered, Securities of a Series called for redemption become due and payable on the Redemption Date and at the redemption price, plus interest, if any, accrued to the Redemption Date. Upon surrender to the Trustee or Paying Agent, such Securities of a Series shall be paid at the redemption price, plus accrued interest, if any, to the Redemption Date; PROVIDED, that if the Redemption Date is after a regular interest payment record date and on or prior to the next Interest Payment Date, the accrued interest shall be payable to the Holder of the redeemed Securities registered on the relevant record date, as specified by the Company in the notice to the Trustee pursuant to Section 3.1.

 

3.5.

DEPOSIT OF REDEMPTION PRICE.

On or prior to the Redemption Date (but no later than 11:00 A.M. Eastern Time on such date), the Company shall deposit with the Paying Agent money sufficient to pay the redemption price of and accrued interest, if any, on all Securities to be redeemed on that date other than Securities or portions thereof called for redemption on that date which have been delivered by the Company to the Trustee for cancellation.

On and after any Redemption Date, if money sufficient to pay the redemption price of, and accrued interest on, Securities called for redemption shall have been made available in accordance with the preceding paragraph and the Company and the Paying Agent are not prohibited from paying such moneys to Holders, the Securities called for redemption will cease to accrue interest and the only right of the Holders of such Securities will be to receive payment of the redemption price of and, subject to the proviso in Section 3.4, accrued and unpaid interest on such Securities to the Redemption Date. If any Security called for redemption shall not be so paid, interest will be paid, from the Redemption Date until such redemption payment is made, on the unpaid principal of the Security and any interest or premium, if any, not paid on such unpaid principal, in each case, at the rate and in the manner provided in the Securities.

 

3.6.

SECURITIES REDEEMED IN PART.

Upon surrender of a Security of a Series that is redeemed in part, the Company shall execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate, for a Holder a new Security of the same Series equal in principal amount to the unredeemed portion of the Security surrendered.

ARTICLE 4.

COVENANTS

 

4.1.

PAYMENT OF SECURITIES.

The Company shall pay the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, each Series of Securities on the dates and in the manner provided in such Securities and this Indenture.

 

-18-


An installment of principal or interest shall be considered paid on the date it is due if the Trustee or Paying Agent holds on that date money designated for and sufficient to pay such installment and is not prohibited from paying such money to the Holders pursuant to the terms of this Indenture or otherwise.

The Company shall pay interest on overdue principal, and overdue interest, to the extent lawful, at the rate specified in the Series of Securities.

 

4.2.

SEC REPORTS.

The Company will deliver to the Trustee within 15 days after the filing of the same with the SEC, copies of the quarterly and annual reports and of the information, documents and other reports, if any, which the Company is required to file with the SEC pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act; PROVIDED, HOWEVER, that each such report or document will be deemed to be so delivered to the Trustee if the Company files such report or document with the SEC through the SEC’s EDGAR database no later than the time such report or document is required to be filed with the SEC pursuant to the Exchange Act. Notwithstanding that the Company may not be subject to the reporting requirements of Section 13 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act, the Company will file with the SEC, to the extent permitted, and provide the Trustee with, such quarterly and annual reports and such information, documents and other reports specified in Sections 13 and 15(d) of the Exchange Act. The Company will also comply with the other provisions of TIA Section 314(a).

Delivery of such reports, information and documents to the Trustee is for informational purposes only and the Trustee’s receipt of such shall not constitute actual or constructive notice of any information contained therein or determinable from information contained therein, including the Company’s compliance with any of its covenants hereunder (as to which the Trustee is entitled to rely exclusively on Officers’ Certificates). The Trustee will not be responsible and shall have no liability whatsoever to determine whether any financial information has been filed or posted on the EDGAR system (or any successor electronic delivery procedure) or have any duty to monitor or determine whether the Company has delivered the reports described under this Section 4.2 or otherwise complied with its obligation under this Section 4.2.

 

4.3.

WAIVER OF STAY, EXTENSION OR USURY LAWS.

The Company covenants (to the extent that it may lawfully do so) that it will not at any time insist upon, or plead (as a defense or otherwise) or in any manner whatsoever claim or take the benefit or advantage of, any stay, extension, usury or other law which would prohibit or forgive the Company from paying all or any portion of the principal of, and/or interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities as contemplated herein, wherever enacted, now or at any time hereafter in force, or which may affect the covenants or the performance of this Indenture; and the Company hereby expressly waives (to the extent that they may lawfully do so) all benefit or advantage of any such law, and covenants that it will not hinder, delay or impede the execution of any power herein granted to the Trustee, but will suffer and permit the execution of every such power as though no such law had been enacted.

 

-19-


4.4.

COMPLIANCE CERTIFICATE.

(a) The Company shall deliver to the Trustee, within 120 days after the end of each fiscal year of the Company during which any Securities were outstanding, an Officers’ Certificate which complies with TIA Section 314(a)(4) stating that a review of the activities of the Company and its Subsidiaries during such fiscal year has been made under the supervision of the signing Officers with a view to determining whether the Company has kept, observed, performed and fulfilled its obligations under this Indenture, and further stating, as to each such Officer signing such certificate, that to the best of his or her knowledge the Company has kept, observed, performed and fulfilled each and every covenant contained in this Indenture and that there is no default in the performance or observance of any of the terms, provisions and conditions hereof (or, if a Default or Event of Default shall have occurred, describing all such Defaults or Events of Default of which he or she may have knowledge and what action the Company is taking or proposes to take with respect thereto) and that to the best of his or her knowledge no event has occurred and remains in existence by reason of which payments on account of the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, the Securities is prohibited, or if such event has occurred, a description of the event and what action the Company is taking or proposes to take with respect thereto.

(b) (i) If any Default or Event of Default has occurred and is continuing or (ii) if any Holder seeks to exercise any remedy hereunder with respect to a claimed Default under this Indenture or the Securities, within ten Business Days after the Company becoming aware of such occurrence the Company shall deliver to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate specifying such event, notice or other action and what action the Company is taking or proposes to take with respect thereto.

 

4.5.

CORPORATE EXISTENCE.

Subject to ARTICLE 5, the Company shall do or cause to be done all things necessary to preserve and keep in full force and effect its corporate existence, in accordance with the organizational documents (as the same may be amended from time to time) of the Company and the rights (charter and statutory), licenses and franchises of the Company; PROVIDED, HOWEVER, that the Company shall not be required to preserve any such right, license or franchise, or its corporate existence, if the Board of Directors shall determine that the preservation thereof is no longer desirable in the conduct of the business of the Company and that the loss thereof is not adverse in any material respect to the Holders.

 

-20-


ARTICLE 5.

SUCCESSOR CORPORATION

 

5.1.

LIMITATION ON CONSOLIDATION, MERGER AND SALE OF ASSETS.

(a) The Company will not, in any transaction or series of transactions, merge or consolidate with or into, or sell, assign, convey, transfer, lease or otherwise dispose of all or substantially all of its properties and assets (as an entirety or substantially as an entirety in one transaction or a series of related transactions), to any Person or Persons, unless at the time of and after giving effect thereto (i) either (A) if the transaction or series of transactions is a merger or consolidation, the Company shall be the surviving Person of such merger or consolidation, or (B) the Person formed by such consolidation or into which the Company is merged or to which the properties and assets of the Company are transferred (any such surviving Person or transferee Person being the “Surviving Entity”) shall be a corporation or entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes organized and existing under the laws of the United States of America, any state thereof or the District of Columbia, or a corporation or comparable legal entity treated as a corporation for U.S. federal income tax purposes organized under the laws of a foreign jurisdiction and shall expressly assume by a supplemental indenture executed and delivered to the Trustee, in form reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee, all of the obligations of the Company (including, without limitation, the obligation to pay the principal of, and premium and interest, if any, on, the Securities and the performance of the other covenants) under the Securities of each Series and this Indenture, and in each case, this Indenture shall remain in full force and effect; and (ii) immediately before and immediately after giving effect to such transaction or series of transactions on a pro forma basis (including, without limitation, any Indebtedness incurred or anticipated to be incurred in connection with or in respect of such transaction or series of transactions), no Default or Event of Default shall have occurred and be continuing.

(b) In connection with any consolidation, merger or transfer of assets contemplated by this Section 5.1, the Company shall deliver, or cause to be delivered, to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that such consolidation, merger or transfer, and the supplemental indenture in respect thereto, comply with this Section 5.1, and that all conditions precedent herein provided for relating to such transaction or transactions have been complied with.

 

5.2.

SUCCESSOR PERSON SUBSTITUTED.

Upon any consolidation, merger or transfer of all or substantially all of the assets of the Company in accordance with Section 5.1 above, the successor corporation formed by such consolidation, or into which the Company is merged or to which such transfer is made, shall succeed to, and be substituted for, and may exercise every right and power of, the Company under this Indenture with the same effect as if such successor corporation had been named as the Company herein, and thereafter (except with respect to any such transfer which is a lease) the predecessor corporation shall be relieved of all obligations and covenants under this Indenture and the Securities.

ARTICLE 6.

DEFAULTS AND REMEDIES

 

6.1.

EVENTS OF DEFAULT.

“Events of Default,” wherever used herein with respect to Securities of any Series, means any one of the following events, unless in the establishing Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officers’ Certificate, it is provided that such Series shall not have the benefit of said Event of Default:

(1) there is a default in the payment of any principal of, or premium, if any, on, the Securities when the same becomes due and payable at Maturity, upon acceleration, redemption or otherwise;

 

-21-


(2) there is a default in the payment of any interest on any Security of a Series when the same becomes due and payable, and the Default continues for a period of 30 days;

(3) the Company defaults in the observance or performance of any other covenant in the Securities of a Series or in this Indenture for 60 days after written notice from the Trustee or the Holders of not less than 25% in the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such Series then outstanding, which notice must specify the Default, demand that it be remedied and state that the notice is a “Notice of Default”;

(4) the Company or any Significant Subsidiary pursuant to or within the meaning of any Bankruptcy Law:

 

  (A)

commences a voluntary case,

 

  (B)

consents to the entry of an order for relief against it in an involuntary case,

 

  (C)

consents to the appointment of a Custodian of it or for all or substantially all of its property,

 

  (D)

makes a general assignment for the benefit of its creditors, or

 

  (E)

generally is not paying its debts as they become due;

(5) a court of competent jurisdiction enters an order or decree under any Bankruptcy Law that:

 

  (A)

is for relief against the Company or any Significant Subsidiary in an involuntary case;

 

  (B)

appoints a Custodian of the Company or any Significant Subsidiary, or for all or substantially all of the property of the Company or any Significant Subsidiary; or

 

  (C)

orders the liquidation of the Company or any Significant Subsidiary, and the order or decree remains unstayed and in effect for 90 consecutive days; or

(6) any other Event of Default provided with respect to Securities of that Series, which is specified in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers’ Certificate, in accordance with Section 2.2(19).

 

-22-


The term “Bankruptcy Law” means Title 11, U.S. Code, or any similar federal, state or foreign law for the relief of debtors. The term “Custodian” means any receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator or similar official under any Bankruptcy Law.

The Trustee may withhold notice of any Default (except in the payment of the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, the Securities) to the Holders of the Securities of any Series in accordance with Section 7.5. When a Default is cured, it ceases to exist.

The Trustee shall not be charged with knowledge of any Event of Default unless written notice thereof shall have been actually received by a Responsible Officer at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee from the Company, a Paying Agent, any Holder or any agent of any Holder.

 

6.2.

ACCELERATION.

If an Event of Default with respect to Securities of any Series at the time outstanding (other than an Event of Default arising under Section 6.1(4) or (5) with respect to the Company) occurs and is continuing, the Trustee by written notice to the Company, or the Holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that Series then outstanding by written notice to the Company and the Trustee, may declare that the entire principal amount (and premium, if any, on) of all the Securities of that Series then outstanding plus accrued and unpaid interest to the date of acceleration are immediately due and payable, in which case such amounts shall become immediately due and payable; PROVIDED, HOWEVER, that after such acceleration but before a judgment or decree based on such acceleration is obtained by the Trustee, the Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding Securities of that Series may rescind and annul such acceleration and its consequences if (i) all existing Events of Default, other than the nonpayment of accelerated principal, interest or premium, if any, that has become due solely because of the acceleration, have been cured or waived, (ii) to the extent the payment of such interest is lawful, interest on overdue installments of interest and overdue principal, which has become due otherwise than by such declaration of acceleration, has been paid and (iii) the rescission would not conflict with any judgment or decree. No such rescission shall affect any subsequent Default or impair any right consequent thereto. In case an Event of Default specified in Section 6.1(4) or (5) with respect to the Company occurs, such principal, premium, if any, and interest amount with respect to all of the Securities of that Series shall be due and payable immediately without any declaration or other act on the part of the Trustee or the Holders of the Securities of that Series.

 

6.3.

REMEDIES.

If an Event of Default with respect to Securities of any Series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing, the Trustee may, but shall not be obligated to, pursue any available remedy by proceeding at law or in equity to collect the payment of the principal of, or interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities of that Series, or to enforce the performance of any provision of the Securities of that Series or this Indenture.

 

-23-


The Trustee may maintain a proceeding even if it does not possess any of the Securities of that Series or does not produce any of them in the proceeding. A delay or omission by the Trustee or any Securityholder in exercising any right or remedy accruing upon an Event of Default shall not impair the right or remedy or constitute a waiver of or acquiescence in the Event of Default. No remedy is exclusive of any other remedy. All available remedies are cumulative to the extent permitted by law.

 

6.4.

WAIVER OF PAST DEFAULTS AND EVENTS OF DEFAULT.

Subject to Sections 6.2, 6.7 and 8.2, the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of any Series then outstanding by written notice to the Trustee have the right to waive any existing Default or Event of Default with respect to such Series or compliance with any provision of this Indenture (with respect to such Series) or the Securities of such Series. Upon any such waiver, such Default with respect to such Series shall cease to exist, and any Event of Default with respect to such Series arising therefrom shall be deemed to have been cured for every purpose of this Indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other Default or Event of Default or impair any right consequent thereto. This Section 6.4 shall be in lieu of TIA Section 316(a)(1)(B), and TIA Section 316(a)(1)(B) is hereby expressly excluded from this Indenture and Section as permitted by the TIA.

 

6.5.

CONTROL BY MAJORITY.

Subject to Sections 6.2, 6.7 and 8.2, the Holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of any Series then outstanding may direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee by this Indenture with respect to such Series. The Trustee, however, may refuse to follow any direction that conflicts with law or this Indenture, or that the Trustee determines, in its sole discretion, may be unduly prejudicial to the rights of another Securityholder or the Trustee, or that may involve the Trustee in personal liability; PROVIDED, that the Trustee may take any other action deemed proper by the Trustee which is not inconsistent with such direction. This Section 6.5 shall be in lieu of TIA Section 316(a)(1)(A), and TIA Section 316(a)(1)(A) is hereby expressly excluded from this Indenture and Section as permitted by the TIA.

 

6.6.

LIMITATION ON SUITS.

Subject to Section 6.7, a Securityholder may not institute any proceeding or pursue any remedy with respect to this Indenture or the Securities of a Series unless:

(1) the Holder gives to the Trustee written notice of a continuing Event of Default with respect to the Securities of that Series;

(2) the Holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such Series then outstanding make a written request to the Trustee to pursue the remedy;

(3) such Holder or Holders offer to the Trustee indemnity satisfactory to the Trustee against any loss, liability or expense to be incurred in compliance with such request;

(4) the Trustee does not comply with the request within 60 days after receipt of the request and the offer of indemnity; and

 

-24-


(5) no direction inconsistent with such written request has been given to the Trustee during such 60-day period by the Holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such Series then outstanding.

A Securityholder may not use this Indenture to prejudice the rights of another Securityholder, or to obtain a preference or priority over another Securityholder.

 

6.7.

RIGHTS OF HOLDERS TO RECEIVE PAYMENT.

Notwithstanding any other provision of this Indenture, the right of any Holder of a Security of a Series to receive payment of the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, the Security of such Series on or after the respective due dates expressed in the Security of such Series, or to bring suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after such respective dates, is absolute and unconditional, and shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of the Holder.

 

6.8.

COLLECTION SUIT BY TRUSTEE.

If an Event of Default in payment of principal, interest or premium, if any, specified in Section 6.1(1) or (2) with respect to Securities of any Series at the time outstanding occurs and is continuing, the Trustee may recover judgment in its own name and as trustee of an express trust against the Company (or any other obligor on the Securities of that Series) for the whole amount of unpaid principal and premium, if any, and accrued interest remaining unpaid, together with interest on overdue principal and premium, if any, and, to the extent that payment of such interest is lawful, interest on overdue installments of interest, in each case at the rate then borne by the Securities of that Series, and such further amounts as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, including the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel, as set forth in Section 7.7.

 

6.9.

TRUSTEE MAY FILE PROOFS OF CLAIM.

The Trustee may file such proofs of claim and other papers or documents, and take other actions (including sitting on a committee of creditors), as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee (including any claim for the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel) and the Securityholders allowed in any judicial proceedings relative to the Company (or any other obligor on the Securities), any of their respective creditors or any of their respective property, and the Trustee shall be entitled and empowered to collect and receive any monies or other property payable or deliverable on any such claims, and to distribute the same after deduction of its charges and expenses to the extent that any such charges and expenses are not paid out of the estate in any such proceedings, and any custodian in any such judicial proceeding is hereby authorized by each Securityholder to make such payments to the Trustee, and in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of such payments directly to the Securityholders, to pay to the Trustee any amount due to it for the reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances of the Trustee, its agents and counsel, and any other amounts due the Trustee under Section 7.7, and to the extent that such payment of reasonable compensation, expenses, disbursements and advances in any such proceedings shall be denied for any reason, payment of the same shall be secured by a lien on, and shall be paid out of, any and all distributions, dividends, money, securities and other property which the Holders may be entitled to receive in such proceedings, whether in liquidation or under any plan of reorganization or arrangement or otherwise.

 

-25-


Nothing herein contained shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to, or accept or adopt on behalf of any Securityholder, any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities of a Series or the rights of any Holder thereof, or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Securityholder in any such proceedings.

 

6.10.

PRIORITIES.

If the Trustee collects any money pursuant to this ARTICLE 6, it shall pay out the money in the following order:

FIRST: to the Trustee for amounts due under Section 7.7;

SECOND: to Securityholders for amounts then due and unpaid for the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities in respect of which, or for the benefit of which, such money has been collected, ratably, without preference or priority of any kind, according to the amounts due and payable on such Securities; for principal and any premium and interest, respectively; and

THIRD: to the Company or such party as a court of competent jurisdiction shall direct.

The Trustee may fix a record date and payment date for any payment to Securityholders pursuant to this Section 6.10.

 

6.11.

UNDERTAKING FOR COSTS.

In any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture, or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken or omitted by it as Trustee, a court in its discretion may require the filing by any party litigant in the suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of the suit, and the court in its discretion may assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees, against any party litigant in the suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by the party litigant. This Section 6.11 does not apply to a suit by the Trustee, a suit by a Holder pursuant to Section 6.7 or a suit by Holders of more than 10% in principal amount of the Securities of a Series then outstanding.

ARTICLE 7.

TRUSTEE

 

7.1.

DUTIES OF TRUSTEE.

(a) If an Event of Default has occurred and is continuing, the Trustee shall exercise such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture and use the same degree of care and skill in its exercise as a prudent Person would exercise or use under the same circumstances in the conduct of his or her own affairs.

 

-26-


(b) Except during the continuance of an Event of Default:

(1) The duties of the Trustee shall be determined solely by the express provisions of this Indenture and the Trustee need perform only those duties that are specifically set forth in this Indenture and no others, and no covenants or obligations shall be implied in this Indenture against the Trustee.

(2) In the absence of bad faith on its part, the Trustee may conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon certificates or opinions furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture, but, in the case of any such certificates or opinions which by any provision hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall be under a duty to examine the same to determine whether or not they conform to the requirements of this Indenture.

(c) The Trustee may not be relieved from liability for its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act or its own willful misconduct, except that:

(1) This paragraph does not limit the effect of paragraph (b) of this Section 7.1.

(2) The Trustee shall not be liable for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer, unless it is proved that the Trustee was negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts.

(3) The Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action it takes or omits to take in good faith in accordance with a direction received by it pursuant to Sections 6.2 and 6.5.

(d) No provision of this Indenture shall require the Trustee to expend or risk its own funds, or otherwise incur any liability, including any financial liability, in the performance of any of its rights or powers if it shall have reasonable grounds for believing that repayment of such funds or adequate indemnity satisfactory to it against such risk or liability is not reasonably assured to it. The Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or power vested in it by this Indenture at the request or direction of any of the Holder pursuant to this Indenture, unless such Holders shall have offered, and if requested provided, to the Trustee indemnity satisfactory to the Trustee against the costs, expenses and liabilities that might be incurred by it in compliance with such request or direction.

(e) Whether or not therein expressly so provided, paragraphs (a), (b), (c) and (d) of this Section 7.1 shall govern every provision of this Indenture that in any way relates to the Trustee.

(f) The Trustee and Paying Agent shall not be liable for interest on any money received by either of them, except as the Trustee and Paying Agent may agree in writing with the Company. Money held in trust by the Trustee need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by the law.

 

-27-


(g) The Paying Agent, the Registrar and any authenticating agent shall be entitled to the protections, immunities and standard of care set forth in paragraphs (a), (b), (c), (d) and (f) of this Section 7.1 and in Section 7.2 with respect to the Trustee.

(h) The Trustee shall not be required to give any bond or surety in respect of the performance of its powers or duties hereunder.

 

7.2.

RIGHTS OF TRUSTEE.

(a) Subject to Section 7.1:

(1) The Trustee may conclusively rely on, and shall be protected in acting or refraining from acting upon, any document y believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper Person. The Trustee need not investigate any fact or matter stated in the document.

(2) Before the Trustee acts or refrains from acting, it may require, and may conclusively rely on, an Officers’ Certificate or an Opinion of Counsel, or both, which shall conform to the provisions of Section 10.5. The Trustee shall be protected and shall not be liable for any action it takes or omits to take in good faith in reliance on such certificate or opinion.

(3) The Trustee may act through agents and attorneys, and shall not be responsible for the misconduct or negligence of any agent appointed by it with due care.

(4) The Trustee shall not be liable for any action it takes or omits to take in good faith which it reasonably believes to be authorized or within its rights or powers.

(5) The Trustee may consult with counsel of its selection, and the advice or opinion of such counsel as to matters of law shall be full and complete authorization and protection from liability in respect of any action taken, omitted or suffered by it hereunder in good faith and in accordance with the advice or opinion of such counsel.

(6) The Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or powers vested in it by this Indenture at the request, order or direction of any of the Holders pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture, unless such Holders shall have provided to the Trustee security or indemnity against the costs, expenses and liabilities which may be incurred therein or thereby.

(7) The Trustee shall not be bound to make any investigation into the facts or matters stated in any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, direction, consent, order, bond, debenture, note, other evidence of indebtedness or other paper or document.

(8) The Trustee shall not be deemed to have knowledge of any fact or matter (including, without limitation, a Default or Event of Default) unless such fact or matter is known to a Responsible Officer of the Trustee.

 

-28-


(9) The permissive right of the Trustee to take actions permitted by this Indenture will not be construed as an obligation or duty to do so.

(10) The rights, privileges, protection, immunities and benefits given to the Trustee, including, without limitation, its right to be indemnified, are extended to, and shall be enforceable by, the Trustee in each of its capacities hereunder, and to each agent, custodian and other person employed to act hereunder.

(11) Unless otherwise expressly provided herein or in the Securities of a Series or the related Board Resolution, supplemental indenture or Officers’ Certificate, the Trustee shall not have any responsibility with respect to reports, notices, certificates or other documents filed with it hereunder, except to make them available for inspection, at reasonable times, by Securityholders, it being understood that delivery of such reports, information and documents to the Trustee is for informational purposes only and the Trustee’s receipt of such shall not constitute constructive notice of any information contained therein or determinable from information contained therein, including the Company’s compliance with any of its covenants hereunder (except as set forth in Section 4.4).

(12) The Trustee may request that the Company deliver an Officers’ Certificate setting forth the names of individuals and/or titles of officers authorized at such time to take specified actions pursuant to this Indenture, which Officers’ Certificate may be signed by any Person authorized to sign an Officers’ Certificate, including any Person specified as so authorized in any such certificate previously delivered and not superseded.

(13) In no event shall the Trustee be responsible or liable for special, punitive, indirect or consequential loss or damage of any kind whatsoever (including, but not limited to, loss of profit), irrespective of whether the Trustee has been advised of the likelihood of such loss or damage and regardless of the form of action.

 

7.3.

INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS OF TRUSTEE.

The Trustee in its individual or any other capacity may become the owner or pledgee of Securities, and may make loans to, accept deposits from, perform services for or otherwise deal with the Company, or any Affiliate thereof, with the same rights it would have if it were not Trustee. Any Agent may do the same with like rights. The Trustee, however, shall be subject to Sections 7.10 and 7.11.

 

7.4.

TRUSTEE’S DISCLAIMER.

The Trustee shall not be responsible for and makes no representation as to the validity or adequacy of this Indenture or the Securities (except that the Trustee represents that it is duly authorized to execute and deliver this Indenture and authenticate the Securities and perform its obligations hereunder), and the Trustee shall not be accountable for the Company’s use of the proceeds from the sale of Securities or any money paid to the Company or upon the Company’s direction pursuant to the terms of this Indenture, and the Trustee shall not be responsible for any statement or recital herein or any statement in the Securities or any other document in connection with the sale of the Securities or pursuant to this Indenture other than its certificates of authentication.

 

-29-


7.5.

NOTICE OF DEFAULT.

If a Default or an Event of Default occurs and is continuing with respect to the Securities of any Series, and if it is known to as Responsible Officer of the Trustee, the Trustee shall deliver to each Securityholder of the Securities of that Series notice of the Default or the Event of Default, as the case may be, within 90 days after it occurs or, if later, after a Responsible Officer of the Trustee has knowledge of such Default or Event of Default (except if such Default or Event of Default has been validly cured or waived before the giving of such notice). Except in the case of a Default or an Event of Default in payment of the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, any Security of any Series, the Trustee may withhold the notice if and so long as it determines that withholding the notice is in the interests of the Securityholders of that Series.

 

7.6.

REPORTS BY TRUSTEE TO HOLDERS.

If and to the extent required by the TIA, within 60 days after May 15 of each year, commencing the May 15 following the date of this Indenture, the Trustee shall deliver to each Securityholder a brief report dated as of such May 15 that complies with TIA Section 313(a). The Trustee also shall comply with TIA Sections 313(b) and 313(c).

A copy of each report at the time of its delivery to Securityholders shall be filed with the SEC and any stock exchange on which the Securities of that Series are listed. The Company shall promptly notify the Trustee in writing when the Securities of any Series are listed on any stock exchange or any delisting thereof, and the Trustee shall comply with TIA Section 313(d).

 

7.7.

COMPENSATION AND INDEMNITY.

The Company shall pay to the Trustee from time to time compensation for its services as the Company and the Trustee shall from time to time agree in writing. The Trustee’s compensation shall not be limited by any provision of law on compensation of a trustee of an express trust. The Company shall reimburse the Trustee within 45 days after receipt of request for all reasonable disbursements, expenses and advances incurred or made by it in connection with its duties under this Indenture, including the reasonable compensation, disbursements and expenses of the Trustee’s agents and counsel.

The Company shall indemnify the Trustee (in any of its capacities), its officers, directors, employees and agents for, and hold them harmless against, any and all losses, liabilities, damages, claims or expense (including taxes, other than taxes based upon, measured by or determined by the income of the Trustee) incurred by it or arising out of or in connection with the acceptance or administration of its duties under this Indenture including the costs and expenses of enforcing this Indenture against the Company (including this Section 7.7) and defending itself against any claim (whether asserted by the Company or any Holder or any other Person) or liability in connection with the exercise or performance of any of its powers or duties hereunder. The Trustee, upon receiving written notice thereof, shall notify the Company promptly of any claim asserted against the Trustee for which it may seek indemnity.

 

30


The failure by the Trustee to so notify the Company shall not however relieve the Company of its obligations hereunder. The Company shall defend the claim and the Trustee shall cooperate in the defense. The Trustee may have separate counsel and the Company shall pay the reasonable fees and expenses of such counsel. The Company need not pay for any settlement made without its written consent, which consent shall not be unreasonably withheld. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Company need not reimburse the Trustee for any expense or indemnify it against any loss or liability incurred by the Trustee through its negligence or bad faith as established by a final, non-appealable order of a court of competent jurisdiction. To secure the payment obligations of the Company in this Section 7.7, the Trustee shall have a lien prior to the Securities of any Series on all money or property held or collected by the Trustee except such money or property held in trust to pay the principal of, interest and premium, if any, on particular Securities of that Series.

When the Trustee incurs expenses or renders services after an Event of Default specified in Section 6.1(4) or (5) occurs, the expenses and the compensation for the services are intended to constitute expenses of administration under any Bankruptcy Law.

For purposes of this Section 7.7, the term “Trustee” shall include any trustee appointed pursuant to this ARTICLE 7.

The obligations of the Company under this Section 7.7 shall survive the termination or satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture or the resignation or removal of the Trustee for any reason.

 

7.8.

REPLACEMENT OF TRUSTEE.

The Trustee may resign with respect to the Securities of one or more Series by so notifying the Company in writing at least 90 days in advance of such resignation.

The Holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of any Series may remove the Trustee with respect to that Series by notifying the removed Trustee in writing and may appoint a successor Trustee with respect to that Series with the consent of the Company, which consent shall not be unreasonably withheld. The Company may remove the Trustee with respect to that Series at its election if:

(1) the Trustee fails to comply with, or ceases to be eligible under, Section 7.10;

(2) the Trustee is adjudged a bankrupt or an insolvent, or an order for relief is entered with respect to the Trustee, under any Bankruptcy Law;

(3) a Custodian or other public officer takes charge of the Trustee or its property; or

(4) the Trustee otherwise becomes incapable of acting.

If the Trustee resigns or is removed, or if a vacancy exists in the office of Trustee, with respect to any Series of Securities for any reason, the Company shall promptly appoint, by Board Resolution, a successor Trustee.

 

-31-


If a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more Series does not take office within 60 days after the retiring Trustee resigns or is removed, the retiring Trustee, the Company or the Holders of at least 10% in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of the applicable Series may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor Trustee.

If the Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more Series fails to comply with Section 7.10, any Securityholder of the applicable Series may petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the removal of the Trustee and the appointment of a successor Trustee.

A successor Trustee shall deliver a written acceptance of its appointment to the retiring Trustee and to the Company. Immediately following such delivery, (i) the retiring Trustee with respect to one or more Series shall, subject to its rights under Section 7.7, transfer all property held by it as Trustee with respect to such Series to the successor Trustee, (ii) the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective and (iii) the successor Trustee with respect to such Series shall have all the rights, powers and duties of the Trustee under this Indenture. A successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more Series shall mail notice of its succession to each Securityholder of such Series.

A retiring Trustee shall not be liable for the acts or omissions of any successor Trustee after its succession.

Notwithstanding replacement of the Trustee pursuant to this section 7.8, the Company’s obligations under Section 7.7 shall continue for the benefit of the retiring Trustee.

 

7.9.

SUCCESSOR TRUSTEE BY CONSOLIDATION, MERGER OR CONVERSION.

Any organization or entity into which the Trustee may be merged or converted or with which it may be consolidated, or any organization or entity resulting from any merger, conversion or consolidation to which the Trustee shall be a party, or any organization or entity succeeding to all or substantially all of the corporate trust business of the Trustee, shall be the successor of the Trustee hereunder, provided such organization or entity shall be otherwise qualified and eligible under this Article 7, without the execution or filing of any paper or any further act on the part of any of the parties hereto.

 

7.10.

ELIGIBILITY; DISQUALIFICATION.

This Indenture shall always have a Trustee who satisfies the requirements of TIA Sections 310(a)(1), (2) and (5) in every respect. The Trustee (or in the case of a Trustee that is a Person included in a bank holding company system, the related bank holding company) shall have a combined capital and surplus of at least $100,000,000 as set forth in its most recent published annual report of condition. The Trustee shall comply with TIA Section 310(b), including the provision in Section 310(b)(1). In addition, if the Trustee is a Person included in a bank holding company system, the Trustee, independently of such bank holding company, shall meet the capital requirements of TIA Section 310(a)(2). If at any time the Trustee shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of this Section 7.10, it shall resign immediately in the manner and with the effect specified in this ARTICLE 7.

 

-32-


7.11.

PREFERENTIAL COLLECTION OF CLAIMS AGAINST COMPANY.

The Trustee shall comply with TIA Section 311(a), excluding any creditor relationship listed in TIA Section 311(b). A Trustee who has resigned or been removed shall be subject to TIA Section 311(a) to the extent indicated therein.

 

7.12.

PAYING AGENTS.

The Company shall cause each Paying Agent other than the Trustee to execute and deliver to it and the Trustee an instrument in which such agent shall agree with the Trustee, subject to the provisions of this Section 7.12:

(1) that it will hold all sums held by it as agent for the payment of the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, the Securities (whether such sums have been paid to it by the Company or by any obligor on the Securities) in trust for the benefit of Holders of the Securities or the Trustee;

(2) that it will at any time during the continuance of any Event of Default, upon written request from the Trustee, deliver to the Trustee all sums so held in trust by it together with a full accounting thereof; and

(3) that it will give the Trustee written notice within three Business Days after any failure of the Company (or by any obligor on the Securities) in the payment of any installment of the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, the Securities when the same shall be due and payable.

ARTICLE 8.

AMENDMENTS, SUPPLEMENTS AND WAIVERS

 

8.1.

WITHOUT CONSENT OF HOLDERS.

The Company, when authorized by a Board Resolution, and the Trustee may amend or supplement this Indenture or the Securities of one or more Series without notice to or consent of any Securityholder:

(1) to comply with Section 5.1;

(2) to provide for certificated Securities in addition to uncertificated Securities;

(3) to comply with any requirements of the SEC under the TIA;

(4) to cure any mistake, ambiguity, defect or inconsistency, or to make any other change herein or in the Securities that does not materially and adversely affect the rights of any Securityholder;

(5) to provide for the issuance of, and establish the form and terms and conditions of, Securities of any Series as permitted by this Indenture; or

 

-33-


(6) to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment hereunder by a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more Series, and to add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee.

The Trustee is hereby authorized to join with the Company in the execution of any supplemental indenture authorized or permitted by the terms of this Indenture, and to make any further appropriate agreements and stipulations which may be therein contained, but the Trustee shall not be obligated to enter into any such supplemental indenture which adversely affects its own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture.

 

8.2.

WITH CONSENT OF HOLDERS.

(a) The Company, when authorized by a Board Resolution, and the Trustee may amend or supplement this Indenture or the Securities of one or more Series with the written consent of the Holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding Securities of such Series affected by such amendment or supplement without notice to any Securityholder. The Holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding Securities of each such Series affected by such amendment or supplement may waive compliance by the Company in a particular instance with any provision of this Indenture or the Securities of such Series without notice to any Securityholder. Subject to Section 8.4, without the consent of each Securityholder affected, however, an amendment, supplement or waiver may not:

(1) reduce the amount of Securities whose Holders must consent to an amendment, supplement or waiver to this Indenture or the Securities;

(2) reduce the rate of, or change the time for payment of, interest on any Security;

(3) reduce the principal, or change the Stated Maturity, of any Security, or reduce the amount of, or postpone the date fixed for, the payment of any sinking fund or analogous obligation;

(4) make any Security payable in money other than that stated in the Security;

(5) change the amount or time of any payment required by the Securities, or reduce the premium payable upon any redemption of the Securities, or change the time before which no such redemption may be made;

(6) waive a Default or Event of Default in the payment of the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, any Security (except a rescission of acceleration of the Securities of any Series by the Holders of at least a majority in principal amount of the outstanding Securities of such Series and a waiver of the payment default that resulted from such acceleration);

(7) waive a redemption payment with respect to any Security, or change any of the provisions with respect to the redemption of any Securities;

 

-34-


(8) make any changes in Section 6.6 or this Section 8.2, except to increase any percentage of Securities the Holders of which must consent to any matter; or

(9) take any other action otherwise prohibited by this Indenture to be taken without the consent of each Holder affected thereby.

(b) Upon the request of the Company, accompanied by a Board Resolution authorizing the execution of any such supplemental indenture, and upon the receipt by the Trustee of evidence reasonably satisfactory to the Trustee of the consent of the Securityholders as aforesaid and of the documents described in Section 8.6, the Trustee shall join with the Company in the execution of such supplemental indenture, unless such supplemental indenture affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture, in which case the Trustee may in its discretion, but shall not be obligated to, enter into such supplemental indenture.

(c) It shall not be necessary for the consent of the Holders under this section to approve the particular form of any proposed amendment, supplement or waiver, but it shall be sufficient if such consent approves the substance thereof.

After an amendment or supplement under this Section becomes effective, the Company shall mail to Securityholders a notice briefly describing the amendment or supplement. Any failure of the Company to mail any such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any supplemental indenture.

 

8.3.

COMPLIANCE WITH TRUST INDENTURE ACT.

Every amendment to, or supplement of, this Indenture or the Securities shall comply with the TIA as then in effect.

 

8.4.

REVOCATION AND EFFECT OF CONSENTS.

Until an amendment, supplement, waiver or other action becomes effective, a consent to it by a Holder of a Security is a continuing consent conclusive and binding upon such Holder and every subsequent Holder of the same Security or portion thereof, and of any Security issued upon the transfer thereof or in exchange therefor or in place thereof, even if notation of the consent is not made on any such Security. Any such Holder or subsequent Holder, however, may revoke the consent as to his Security or portion of a Security, if the Trustee receives the notice of revocation before the date the amendment, supplement, waiver or other action becomes effective.

The Company may, but shall not be obligated to, fix a record date for the purpose of determining the Holders entitled to consent to any amendment, supplement or waiver, which record date shall be at least 30 days prior to the first solicitation of such consent. If a record date is fixed, then, notwithstanding the preceding paragraph, those Persons who were Holders at such record date (or their duly designated proxies), and only such Persons, shall be entitled to consent to such amendment, supplement or waiver, or to revoke any consent previously given, whether or not such Persons continue to be Holders after such record date.

 

-35-


After an amendment, supplement, waiver or other action becomes effective, it shall bind every Securityholder, unless it makes a change described in any of clauses (1) through (9) of Section 8.2. In that case, the amendment, supplement, waiver or other action shall bind each Holder of a Security who has consented to it and every subsequent Holder of a Security or portion of a Security that evidences the same debt as the consenting Holder’s Security; PROVIDED, that any such waiver shall not impair or affect the right of any Holder to receive payment of the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, a Security, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security, or to bring suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after such respective dates without the consent of such Holder.

 

8.5.

NOTATION ON OR EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES.

If an amendment, supplement or waiver changes the terms of a Security of any Series, the Trustee may request the Holder of such Security to deliver it to the Trustee. In such case, the Trustee shall place an appropriate notation on such Security about the changed terms and return it to the Holder. Alternatively, the Company, in exchange for such Security, may issue, and the Trustee shall authenticate, a new security that reflects the changed terms. Failure to make the appropriate notation or issue a new Security shall not affect the validity and effect of such amendment, supplement or waiver.

 

8.6.

TRUSTEE TO SIGN AMENDMENTS, ETC.

The Trustee shall sign any amendment, supplement or waiver authorized pursuant to this ARTICLE 8 if the amendment, supplement or waiver does not adversely affect the rights, duties, liabilities or immunities of the Trustee. If it does, the Trustee may, but need not, sign it. In signing or refusing to sign such amendment, supplement or waiver the Trustee shall be entitled to receive and, subject to Section 7.1, shall be fully protected in relying upon an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel stating that such amendment, supplement or waiver is authorized or permitted by this Indenture. The Company may not sign an amendment or supplement until the Board of Directors of the Company approves it.

ARTICLE 9.

DISCHARGE OF INDENTURE; DEFEASANCE

 

9.1.

DISCHARGE OF INDENTURE.

The Company may terminate its obligations under the Securities of any Series and this Indenture with respect to such Series, except the obligations referred to in the last paragraph of this Section 9.1, if there shall have been canceled by the Trustee, or delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, all Securities of such Series theretofore authenticated and delivered (other than any Securities of such Series that are asserted to have been destroyed, lost or stolen and that shall have been replaced as provided in Section 2.8) and the Company has paid all sums payable by it hereunder or deposited all required sums with the Trustee.

After such delivery the Trustee upon request shall acknowledge in a writing prepared by or on behalf of the Company the discharge of the Company’s obligations under the Securities of such Series and this Indenture, except for those surviving obligations specified below.

 

-36-


Notwithstanding the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture, the obligations of the Company in Sections 7.7, 9.5 and 9.6 shall survive.

 

9.2.

LEGAL DEFEASANCE.

The Company may at its option, by Board Resolution, be discharged from its obligations with respect to the Securities of any Series on the date upon which the conditions set forth in Section 9.4 below are satisfied (hereinafter, “Legal Defeasance”). For this purpose, such Legal Defeasance means that the Company shall be deemed to have paid and discharged the entire indebtedness represented by the Securities of such Series and to have satisfied all its other obligations under such Securities and this Indenture insofar as such Securities are concerned (and the Trustee, at the expense of the Company, shall, subject to Section 9.6, execute proper instruments acknowledging the same, as are delivered to it by the Company), except for the following, which shall survive until otherwise terminated or discharged hereunder: (A) the rights of Holders of outstanding Securities of such Series to receive solely from the trust funds described in Section 9.4 and as more fully set forth in such section, payments in respect of the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities of such Series when such payments are due, (B) the Company’s obligations with respect to the Securities of such Series under Sections 2.4, 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, 2.8 and 2.9, (C) the rights, powers, trusts, duties and immunities of the Trustee hereunder (including claims of, or payments to, the Trustee under or pursuant to Section 7.7) and (D) this ARTICLE 9. Subject to compliance with this ARTICLE 9, the Company may exercise its option under this Section 9.2 with respect to the Securities of any Series notwithstanding the prior exercise of its option under Section 9.3 below with respect to the Securities of such Series.

 

9.3.

COVENANT DEFEASANCE.

At the option of the Company, pursuant to a Board Resolution, the Company shall be released from its obligations with respect to the outstanding Securities of any Series under Sections 4.2 through 4.5, inclusive, and Section 5.1, with respect to the outstanding Securities of such Series, on and after the date the conditions set forth in Section 9.4 are satisfied (hereinafter, “Covenant Defeasance”). For this purpose, such Covenant Defeasance means that the Company may omit to comply with and shall have no liability in respect of any term, condition or limitation set forth in any such specified section or portion thereof, whether directly or indirectly by reason of any reference elsewhere herein to any such specified Section or portion thereof or by reason of any reference in any such specified section or portion thereof to any other provision herein or in any other document, but the remainder of this Indenture and the Securities of any Series shall be unaffected thereby.

 

-37-


9.4.

CONDITIONS TO LEGAL DEFEASANCE OR COVENANT DEFEASANCE.

The following shall be the conditions to application of Section 9.2 or Section 9.3 to the outstanding Securities of a Series:

(1) the Company shall irrevocably have deposited or caused to be deposited with the Trustee (or another trustee satisfying the requirements of Section 7.10 who shall agree to comply with the provisions of this ARTICLE 9 applicable to it) as funds in trust for the purpose of making the following payments, specifically pledged as security for, and dedicated solely to, the benefit of the Holders of the Securities, (A) money in an amount, or (B) U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations which through the scheduled payment of principal and interest in respect thereof in accordance with their terms will provide, not later than the due date of any payment, money in an amount, or (C) a combination thereof, sufficient, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, to pay and discharge, and which shall be applied by the Trustee (or other qualifying trustee) to pay and discharge, the principal of, and accrued interest and premium, if any, on, the outstanding Securities of such Series at the Stated Maturity of such principal, interest or premium, if any, or on dates for payment and redemption of such principal, interest and premium, if any, selected in accordance with the terms of this Indenture and of the Securities of such Series;

(2) no Event of Default or Default (other than that resulting from borrowing funds to be applied to make such deposit and any similar or simultaneous deposit relating to other Indebtedness and, in each case, the granting of liens and the consummation of other transactions in connection therewith) with respect to the Securities of such Series shall have occurred and be continuing on the date of such deposit;

(3) such Legal Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance shall not cause the Trustee to have a conflicting interest for purposes of the TIA with respect to any securities of the Company;

(4) such Legal Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance shall not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute default under, any other agreement or instrument to which the Company is a party or by which it is bound;

(5) the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel stating that, as a result of such Legal Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance, neither the trust nor the Trustee will be required to register as an investment company under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended;

(6) in the case of an election under Section 9.2, the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel stating that (i) the Company has received from, or there has been published by, the Internal Revenue Service a ruling to the effect that or (ii) there has been a change in any applicable Federal income tax law with the effect that, and such opinion shall confirm that, the Holders of the outstanding Securities of such Series or Persons in their positions will not recognize income, gain or loss for Federal income tax purposes solely as a result of such Legal Defeasance and will be subject to Federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner, including as a result of prepayment, and at the same times as would have been the case if such Legal Defeasance had not occurred;

(7) in the case of an election under Section 9.3, the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that the Holders of the outstanding Securities of such Series will not recognize income, gain or loss for Federal income tax purposes as a result of such Covenant Defeasance, and will be subject to Federal income tax on the same amounts, in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such Covenant Defeasance had not occurred;

 

-38-


(8) the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent provided for in this ARTICLE 9 relating to either the Legal Defeasance under Section 9.2 or the Covenant Defeasance under Section 9.3 (as the case may be) have been complied with;

(9) the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate stating that the deposit under clause (1) was not made by the Company with the intent of defeating, hindering, delaying or defrauding any creditors of the Company or others; and

(10) the Company shall have paid, or duly provided for payment under terms mutually satisfactory to the Company and the Trustee, all amounts then due to the Trustee pursuant to Section 7.7.

 

9.5.

DEPOSITED MONEY AND U.S. AND FOREIGN GOVERNMENT OBLIGATIONS TO BE HELD IN TRUST; OTHER MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS.

All money, U.S. Government Obligations and Foreign Government Obligations (including the proceeds thereof) deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Section 9.4 in respect of the outstanding Securities shall be held in trust and applied by the Trustee, in accordance with the provisions of such Securities and this Indenture, to the payment, either directly or through any Paying Agent as the Trustee may determine, to the Holders of such Securities, of all sums due and to become due thereon in respect of principal, accrued interest and premium, if any, but such money need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law.

The Company shall pay and indemnify the Trustee against any tax, fee or other charge imposed on or assessed against the U.S. Government Obligations and Foreign Government Obligations deposited pursuant to Section 9.4 or the principal, interest and premium, if any, received in respect thereof other than any such tax, fee or other charge which by law is for the account of the Holders of the outstanding Securities.

Anything in this ARTICLE 9 to the contrary notwithstanding, but subject to payment of any of its outstanding fees and expenses, the Trustee shall deliver or pay to the Company from time to time upon Company Request any money, U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations held by the Trustee as provided in Section 9.4 which, in the opinion of a nationally-recognized firm of independent public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, are in excess of the amount thereof which would then be required to be deposited to effect an equivalent Legal Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance.

 

9.6.

REINSTATEMENT.

If the Trustee or Paying Agent is unable to apply any money, U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations in accordance with Section 9.1, 9.2, 9.3 or 9.4 by reason of any legal proceeding or by reason of any order or judgment of any court or governmental authority enjoining, restraining or otherwise prohibiting such application, the Company’s obligations under this Indenture and the Securities shall be revived and reinstated as though no deposit had occurred pursuant to this ARTICLE 9 until such time as the Trustee or Paying Agent is permitted to apply all such money, U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations, as the case may be, in accordance with Section 9.1, 9.2, 9.3 or 9.4; PROVIDED, HOWEVER, that if the Company has made any payment of principal of, or accrued interest or premium, if any, on, any Securities because of the reinstatement of its obligations, the Company shall be subrogated to the rights of the Holders of such Securities to receive such payment from the money, U.S. Government Obligations or Foreign Government Obligations held by the Trustee or Paying Agent.

 

-39-


9.7.

MONEYS HELD BY PAYING AGENT.

In connection with the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture, all moneys then held by any Paying Agent under the provisions of this Indenture shall, upon demand of the Company, be paid to the Trustee, or, if sufficient moneys have been deposited pursuant to Section 9.1, to the Company, and thereupon such Paying Agent shall be released from all further liability with respect to such moneys.

 

9.8.

MONEYS HELD BY TRUSTEE.

Any moneys deposited with the Trustee or any Paying Agent or then held by the Company in trust for the payment of the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, any Security that are not applied but remain unclaimed by the Holder of such Security for two years after the date upon which the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, on, such Security shall have respectively become due and payable shall be repaid to the Company upon Company Request, or if such moneys are then held by the Company in trust, such moneys shall be released from such trust; and the Holder of such Security entitled to receive such payment shall thereafter, as an unsecured general creditor, look only to the Company for the payment thereof, and all liability of the Trustee or such Paying Agent with respect to such trust money shall thereupon cease; PROVIDED, HOWEVER, that the Trustee or any such Paying Agent, before being required to make any such repayment, may, at the expense of the Company, either mail to each Securityholder affected, at the address shown in the register of the Securities maintained by the Registrar, or cause to be published once a week for two successive weeks, in a newspaper published in the English language, customarily published each Business Day and of general circulation in the City of New York, New York, a notice that such money remains unclaimed and that, after a date specified therein, which shall not be less than 30 days from the date of such mailing or publication, any unclaimed balance of such moneys then remaining will be repaid to the Company. After payment to the Company or the release of any money held in trust by the Company, Securityholders entitled to the money must look only to the Company for payment as general creditors, unless applicable abandoned property law designates another Person.

ARTICLE 10.

MISCELLANEOUS

 

10.1.

TRUST INDENTURE ACT CONTROLS.

If any provision of this Indenture limits, qualifies or conflicts with another provision which is required to be included in this Indenture by the TIA, the required provision shall control. If any provision of this Indenture modifies or excludes any provision of the TIA which may be so modified or excluded, the latter provision shall be deemed to apply to this Indenture as so modified or to be excluded, as the case may be.

 

-40-


10.2.

NOTICES.

Any notice or communication shall be given in writing or delivered in Person, delivered by commercial courier service or mailed by first-class mail, postage prepaid, addressed as follows:

If to the Company:

Cullinan Oncology

One Main Street, Suite 1350

Cambridge, MA 02142

Telephone: (617) 410-4650

Attention: Jeffrey Trigilio

Copy to:

Ropes & Gray LLP

800 Boylston Street

Boston, Massachusetts 02199

Telephone: (617) 951-7000

Attention: Thomas Danielski

If to the Trustee:

[    ]

The Company or the Trustee by written notice to the other may designate additional or different addresses for subsequent notices or communications. Any notice or communication to the Company or the Trustee shall be deemed to have been given or made as of the date so delivered if personally delivered and three Business Days after mailing if sent by registered or certified mail, postage prepaid (except that a notice of change of address shall not be deemed to have been given until actually received by the addressee).

Any notice or communication mailed to a Securityholder shall be mailed to such Securityholder by first-class mail, postage prepaid, at such Securityholder’s address shown on the register kept by the Registrar.

Failure to mail, or any defect in, a notice or communication to a Securityholder shall not affect its sufficiency with respect to other Securityholders. If a notice or communication to a Securityholder is mailed in the manner provided above, it shall be deemed duly given, three Business Days after such mailing, whether or not the addressee receives it.

If the Company delivers a notice or communication to Securityholders, it shall deliver a copy to the Trustee and each Agent at the same time.

 

-41-


In case by reason of the suspension of regular mail service, or by reason of any other cause, it shall be impossible to mail any notice as required by this Indenture, then such method of notification as shall be made with the approval of the Trustee shall constitute a sufficient mailing of such notice.

In the case of Global Securities, notices or communications to be given to Securityholders shall be given to the Depository, in accordance with its applicable policies as in effect from time to time.

In addition to the manner provided for in the foregoing provisions, notices or communications to Securityholders shall be given by the Company by release made to Reuters Economic Services and Bloomberg Business News.

The Trustee shall have the right to accept and act upon instructions, including funds transfer instructions (“Instructions”) given by the Company pursuant to this Indenture and delivered using unsecured e-mail, facsimile transmission or other similar unsecured electronic methods (including pdf files) (“Electronic Means”); provided, however, that the Company shall provide to the Trustee an incumbency certificate listing officers with the authority to provide such Instructions (each, an “Authorized Officer”) and containing specimen signatures of such Authorized Officers, which incumbency certificate shall be amended by the Company whenever a person is to be added or deleted from the listing. Unless otherwise provided in this Indenture or in any Security, the words “execute,” “execution,” “signed” and “signature” and words of similar import used in or related to any document to be signed in connection with this Indenture, any Security or any of the transactions contemplated hereby (including amendments, waivers, consents and other modifications) shall be deemed to include electronic signatures (including electronic images of handwritten signatures and digital signatures provided by DocuSign, Adobe Sign or any other digital signature provider identified by any other party hereto and acceptable to Trustee) and the keeping of records in electronic form, each of which shall be of the same legal effect, validity or enforceability as a manually executed signature in ink or the use of a paper-based recordkeeping system, as applicable, to the fullest extent and as provided for in any applicable law, including the Federal Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act, the New York State Electronic Signatures and Records Act and any other similar state laws based on the Uniform Electronic Transactions Act; provided that, notwithstanding anything herein to the contrary, the Trustee is not under any obligation to agree to accept electronic signatures in any form or in any format unless expressly agreed to by the Trustee pursuant to procedures approved by the Trustee. If the Company elects to give the Trustee Instructions using Electronic Means and the Trustee in its discretion elects to act upon such Instructions, the Trustee’s understanding of such Instructions shall be deemed controlling. The Company understands and agrees that the Trustee cannot determine the identity of the actual sender of such Instructions and that the Trustee shall conclusively presume that Instructions that purport to have been sent by an Authorized Officer listed on the incumbency certificate provided to the Trustee have been sent by such Authorized Officer. The Company shall be responsible for ensuring that only Authorized Officers transmit such Instructions to the Trustee and that the Company and all Authorized Officers are solely responsible to safeguard the use and confidentiality of applicable user and authorization codes, passwords and/or authentication keys upon receipt by the Company. The Trustee shall not be liable for any losses, costs or expenses arising directly or indirectly from the Trustee’s reliance upon and compliance with such Instructions notwithstanding such Instructions conflict or are inconsistent with a subsequent written instruction. The Company agrees: (a) to assume all risks arising out of the use of electronic signatures and Electronic Means to submit notices or Instructions to the Trustee, including without limitation the risk of the Trustee acting on unauthorized notice or Instructions, and the risk of interception and misuse by third parties; and (b) to notify the Trustee in writing immediately upon learning of any compromise or unauthorized use of the security procedures. Any notice, direction, request or demand hereunder to or upon the Trustee shall be deemed to have been sufficiently given or made, for all purposes, if it is in writing and actually received by the Trustee, addressed as provided above or sent electronically in PDF format.

 

-42-


10.3.

COMMUNICATIONS BY HOLDERS WITH OTHER HOLDERS.

Securityholders of any Series may communicate pursuant to TIA Section 312(b) with other Securityholders of that Series or any other Series with respect to their rights under this Indenture or the Securities of that Series or any other Series. The Company, the Trustee, the Registrar and any other Person shall have the protection of TIA Section 312(c).

 

10.4.

CERTIFICATE AND OPINION AS TO CONDITIONS PRECEDENT.

Upon any request or application by the Company to the Trustee to take any action under this Indenture, the Company shall furnish to the Trustee:

(1) an Officers’ Certificate (which shall include the statements set forth in Section 10.5 below) stating that, in the opinion of the signers, all conditions precedent, if any, provided for in this Indenture relating to the proposed action have been complied with; and

(2) an Opinion of Counsel (which shall include the statements set forth in Section 10.5 below) stating that, in the opinion of such counsel, all such conditions precedent have been complied with.

 

10.5.

STATEMENT REQUIRED IN CERTIFICATE AND OPINION.

Each certificate and opinion with respect to compliance with a condition or covenant provided for in this Indenture (other than pursuant to Section 4.4) shall include:

(1) a statement that the Person making such certificate or opinion has read such covenant or condition;

(2) a brief statement as to the nature and scope of the examination or investigation upon which the statements or opinions contained in such certificate or opinion are based;

(3) a statement that, in the opinion of such Person, it or he has made such examination or investigation as is necessary to enable it or him to express an informed opinion as to whether or not such covenant or condition has been complied with; and

(4) a statement as to whether or not, in the opinion of such Person, such covenant or condition has been complied with.

 

-43-


10.6.

RULES BY TRUSTEE AND AGENTS.

The Trustee may make reasonable rules for action by or at meetings of Securityholders. The Registrar and Paying Agent may make reasonable rules for their functions.

 

10.7.

BUSINESS DAYS; LEGAL HOLIDAYS; PLACE OF PAYMENT.

A “Business Day” is a day that is not a Legal Holiday. A “Legal Holiday” is a Saturday, a Sunday, a federally-recognized holiday or a day on which banking institutions are not authorized or required by law, regulation or executive order to be open in the State of New York or Place of Payment.

If a payment date is a Legal Holiday at a Place of Payment, payment may be made at that place on the next succeeding day that is not a Legal Holiday, and no interest shall accrue for the intervening period. “Place of Payment” means the place or places where the principal of, and interest and premium, if any, on, the Securities of a Series are payable as specified as contemplated by Section 2.2. If the regular record date is a Legal Holiday, the record date shall not be affected.

 

10.8.

GOVERNING LAW.

THIS INDENTURE AND THE SECURITIES SHALL BE GOVERNED BY AND CONSTRUED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE LAWS OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK, AS APPLIED TO CONTRACTS MADE AND PERFORMED WITHIN THE STATE OF NEW YORK WITHOUT REGARD TO PRINCIPLES OF CONFLICTS OF LAW.

 

10.9.

NO ADVERSE INTERPRETATION OF OTHER AGREEMENTS.

This Indenture may not be used to interpret another indenture, loan, security or debt agreement of the Company or any Subsidiary thereof. No such indenture, loan, security or debt agreement may be used to interpret this Indenture.

10.10. NO RECOURSE AGAINST OTHERS.

A director, officer, employee, stockholder or incorporator, as such, of the Company shall not have any liability for any obligations of the Company under the Securities or the Indenture. Each Securityholder by accepting a Security waives and releases all such liability. Such waiver and release are part of the consideration for the issuance of the Securities.

10.11. SUCCESSORS.

All covenants and agreements of the Company in this Indenture and the Securities shall bind the Company’s successors and assigns, whether so expressed or not. All agreements of the Trustee, any additional trustee and any Paying Agents in this Indenture shall bind their respective successors and assigns.

 

-44-


10.12. MULTIPLE COUNTERPARTS.

The parties may sign multiple counterparts of this Indenture. Each signed counterpart shall be deemed an original, but all of them together represent one and the same agreement. Delivery of an executed counterpart by facsimile or PDF shall be effective as delivery of a manually executed counterpart thereof.

10.13. TABLE OF CONTENTS, HEADINGS, ETC.

The table of contents, cross-reference sheet and headings of the Articles and Sections of this Indenture have been inserted for convenience of reference only, are not to be considered a part hereof, and shall in no way modify or restrict any of the terms or provisions hereof.

10.14. SEVERABILITY.

Each provision of this Indenture shall be considered separable, and if for any reason any provision which is not essential to the effectuation of the basic purpose of this Indenture or the Securities shall be invalid, illegal or unenforceable, the validity, legality and enforceability of the remaining provisions shall not in any way be affected or impaired thereby, and a Holder shall have no claim therefor against any party hereto.

10.15. SECURITIES IN A FOREIGN CURRENCY OR IN EUROS.

Unless otherwise specified in a Board Resolution, a supplemental indenture hereto or an Officers’ Certificate delivered pursuant to Section 2.2 with respect to a particular Series of Securities, whenever for purposes of this Indenture any action may be taken by the Holders of a specified percentage in aggregate principal amount of Securities of all Series or all Series affected by a particular action at the time outstanding and, at such time, there are outstanding Securities of any Series which are denominated in a coin or currency other than Dollars (including Euros), then the principal amount of Securities of such Series which shall be deemed to be outstanding for the purpose of taking such action shall be that amount of Dollars that could be obtained for such amount at the Market Exchange Rate at such time. For purposes of this Section 10.15, “Market Exchange Rate” shall mean the noon Dollar buying rate in New York City for cable transfers of that currency as published by the Federal Reserve Bank of New York; PROVIDED, HOWEVER, in the case of Euros, Market Exchange Rate shall mean the rate of exchange determined by the Commission of the European Union (or any successor thereto) as published in the Official Journal of the European Union (such publication or any successor publication, the “Journal”). If such Market Exchange Rate is not available for any reason with respect to such currency, the Trustee shall use, in its sole discretion and without liability on its part, such quotation of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York or, in the case of Euros, the rate of exchange as published in the Journal, as of the most recent available date, or quotations or, in the case of Euros, rates of exchange from one or more major banks in New York City or in the country of issue of the currency in question or, in the case of Euros, in Luxembourg or such other quotations or, in the case of Euros, rates of exchange as the Trustee, upon consultation with the Company, shall deem appropriate. The provisions of this paragraph shall apply in determining the equivalent principal amount in respect of Securities of a Series denominated in currency other than Dollars in connection with any action taken by Holders of Securities pursuant to the terms of this Indenture.

 

-45-


All decisions and determinations of the Trustee regarding the Market Exchange Rate or any alternative determination provided for in the preceding paragraph shall be in the Trustee’s sole discretion, and shall, in the absence of manifest error, be conclusive to the extent permitted by law for all purposes and irrevocably binding upon the Company and all Holders.

10.16. FORCE MAJEURE. In no event shall the Trustee be responsible or liable for any failure or delay in the performance of its obligations hereunder arising out of or caused by, directly or indirectly, forces beyond its control, including, without limitation, strikes, work stoppages, accidents, acts of war or terrorism, civil or military disturbances, epidemic, pandemic, nuclear or natural catastrophes or acts of God, and interruptions, loss or malfunctions of utilities, communications or computer (software and hardware) services; provided that the Trustee shall use reasonable efforts consistent with accepted practices in the banking industry to resume performance as soon as practicable under the circumstances.

10.17. WAIVER OF JURY TRIAL. EACH OF THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE HEREBY IRREVOCABLY WAIVES, TO THE FULLEST EXTENT PERMITTED BY PPLICABLE LAW, ANY AND ALL RIGHT TO TRIAL BY JURY IN ANY LEGAL PROCEEDING ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING TO THIS INDENTURE, THE SECURITIES OR THE TRANSACTIONS CONTEMPLATED HEREBY.

10.18. U.S.A PATRIOT ACT. The parties hereto acknowledge that in accordance with Section 326 of the U.S.A. Patriot Act, the Trustee, like all financial institutions, in order to help fight the funding of terrorism and money laundering, is required to obtain, verify and record information that identifies each person or legal entity that establishes a Relationship or opens an account with the Trustee. The parties to this Indenture agree that they will provide the Trustee with such information as it may reasonably request in order for the Trustee to satisfy the requirements of the U.S.A. Patriot Act.

10.19. JUDGMENT CURRENCY.

The Company agrees, to the fullest extent that it may effectively do so under applicable law, that (a) if for the purpose of obtaining judgment in any court it is necessary to convert the sum due in respect of the principal of, or interest or premium, if any, or other amount on, the Securities of any Series (the “Required Currency”) into a currency in which a judgment will be rendered (the “Judgment Currency”), the rate of exchange used shall be the rate at which, in accordance with normal banking procedures, the Trustee could purchase in The City of New York the Required Currency with the Judgment Currency on the day on which final unappealable judgment is entered, unless such day is not a Business Day, in which instance, the rate of exchange used shall be the rate at which, in accordance with normal banking procedures, the Trustee could purchase in The City of New York the Required Currency with the Judgment Currency on the Business Day preceding the day on which final unappealable judgment is entered and (b) its obligations under this Indenture to make payments in the Required Currency (i) shall not be discharged or satisfied by any tender or any recovery pursuant to any judgment (whether or not entered in accordance with subsection (a)) in any currency other than the Required Currency, except to the extent that such tender or recovery shall result in the actual receipt, by the payee, of the full amount of the Required Currency expressed to be payable in respect of such payments, (ii) shall be enforceable as an alternative or additional cause of action for the purpose of recovering in the Required Currency the amount, if any, by which such actual receipt shall fall short of the full amount of the Required Currency so expressed to be payable and (iii) shall not be affected by judgment being obtained for any other sum due under this Indenture.

 

-46-


IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Indenture to be duly executed, and, if applicable, their respective corporate seals to be hereunto affixed and attested, all as of the day and year first above written.

 

CULLINAN ONCOLOGY, INC.
By:    
Name:    
Title:    
By:    
Name:    
Title:    

 

-47-

EX-5.1

Exhibit 5.1

 

LOGO   

ROPES & GRAY LLP

PRUDENTIAL TOWER

800 BOYLSTON STREET

BOSTON, MA 02199-3600

WWW.ROPESGRAY.COM

  

March 9, 2023

Cullinan Oncology, Inc.

One Main Street, Suite 1350

Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142

Re: Registration of Securities by Cullinan Oncology, Inc.

Ladies and Gentlemen:

We have acted as counsel to Cullinan Oncology, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), in connection with the Registration Statement on Form S-3 (the “Registration Statement”) filed on the date hereof by the Company with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), relating to the registration under the Securities Act and the proposed issuance and sale from time to time pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of:

(i) shares of the Company’s common stock, $0.0001 par value per share (the “Common Stock”);

(ii) shares of the Company’s preferred stock, $0.0001 par value per share (the “Preferred Stock”);

(iii) one or more series of debt securities of the Company (the “Debt Securities”), which Debt Securities may include senior debt securities or subordinated debt securities issued under an indenture, including any supplemental indenture related thereto, and may be convertible into or exchangeable for other securities;

(iv) depositary shares representing fractional interests in the Preferred Stock (the “Depositary Shares”);

(v) purchase contracts (the “Purchase Contracts”) representing rights or obligations to purchase or sell Common Stock, Preferred Stock or other securities;

(vi) subscription rights representing rights to purchase Common Stock, Preferred Stock or other securities (“Subscription Rights”);

(vii) warrants representing the right to receive, upon exercise, a number of shares of Common Stock, Preferred Stock, Debt Securities or Depositary Shares (the “Warrants”); and

(viii) units consisting of any combination of Common Stock, Preferred Stock, Debt Securities, Depositary Shares, Purchase Contracts, Subscription Rights or Warrants (the “Units”).


The Common Stock, the Preferred Stock, the Debt Securities, the Depositary Shares, the Purchase Contracts, the Subscription Rights, the Warrants and the Units are referred to herein collectively as the “Securities.”

In connection with this opinion letter, we have examined such certificates, documents and records and have made such investigation of fact and such examination of law as we have deemed appropriate in order to enable us to render the opinions set forth herein. In conducting such investigation, we have relied, without independent verification, upon certificates of officers of the Company, public officials and other appropriate persons.

The opinions expressed below are limited to the laws of the State of New York and the Delaware General Corporation Law.

Based upon and subject to the foregoing and the assumptions, qualifications and limitations set forth below, we are of the opinion that:

1. When (i) the issuance and sale of any shares of Common Stock have been duly authorized by all necessary corporate action of the Company and (ii) such shares have been issued and delivered against payment of the purchase price therefor (in an amount in excess of the par value thereof) in accordance with the applicable purchase, underwriting or other agreement, and as contemplated by the Registration Statement, such shares of Common Stock will be validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable. The Common Stock covered in the opinion in this paragraph includes any shares of Common Stock that may be issued upon exercise, conversion or exchange pursuant to the terms of any other Securities.

2. When (i) the terms of any Preferred Stock of a particular series and their issuance and sale have been duly authorized by all necessary corporate action of the Company, (ii) a certificate of designations with respect to such series of Preferred Stock has been duly adopted by the Company and filed with the Secretary of State of the State of Delaware, and (iii) such shares of Preferred Stock have been issued and delivered against payment of the purchase price therefor (in an amount in excess of the par value thereof) in accordance with the applicable purchase, underwriting or other agreement, and as contemplated by the Registration Statement, such shares of Preferred Stock will be validly issued, fully paid, and nonassessable. The Preferred Stock covered in the opinion in this paragraph includes any shares of Preferred Stock that may be issued upon exercise, conversion or exchange pursuant to the terms of any other Securities.

3. When (i) the terms of any Debt Securities and their issuance and sale have been duly authorized by all necessary corporate action of the Company and (ii) such Debt Securities have been duly executed, authenticated and delivered against payment of the purchase price therefor in accordance with the applicable definitive purchase, underwriting or similar agreement, as contemplated by the Registration Statement, and in the manner provided for in the applicable indenture, such Debt Securities will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Company enforceable against the Company in accordance with their respective terms. The Debt Securities covered in the opinion in this paragraph include any Debt Securities that may be issued upon exercise, conversion or exchange pursuant to the terms of any other Securities.

 

2


4. When (i) the terms of any Depositary Shares and their issuance and sale have been duly authorized by all necessary corporate action of the Company, (ii) the shares of Preferred Stock relating to such Depositary Shares have been duly authorized and validly issued and are fully paid and nonassessable as contemplated in paragraph 2 above and have been deposited with the depositary under the applicable deposit agreement, and (iii) the depositary receipts evidencing such Depositary Shares have been duly executed, countersigned and delivered in accordance with the related depositary agreement, and as contemplated by the Registration Statement and the related depositary agreement, the depositary receipts evidencing such Depositary Shares will be validly issued and will entitle the holders thereof to the rights specified in the Depositary Shares and the related depositary agreement. The Depositary Shares covered in the opinion in this paragraph include any Depositary Shares of the Company that may be issued upon exercise, conversion or exchange pursuant to the terms of any other Securities.

5. When (i) the terms of any Purchase Contracts and their issuance and sale have been duly authorized by all necessary corporate action of the Company and (ii) such Purchase Contracts have been duly executed and delivered in accordance with the applicable definitive purchase, underwriting or similar agreement, and as contemplated by the Registration Statement, such Purchase Contracts will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Company enforceable against the Company in accordance with their respective terms.

6. When (i) the terms of any Subscription Rights and their issuance and sale have been duly authorized by all necessary corporate action of the Company and (ii) any applicable subscription rights agreement has been duly authorized, executed and delivered in accordance with any applicable subscription rights agreement, as contemplated by the Registration Statement, such Subscription Rights will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Company enforceable against the Company in accordance with their respective terms.

7. When (i) the terms of any Warrants and their issuance and sale have been duly authorized by all necessary corporate action of the Company and (ii) such Warrants have been duly executed, countersigned and delivered in accordance with the applicable warrant agreement and against payment of the purchase price therefor in accordance with the applicable purchase, underwriting or other agreement, and as contemplated by the Registration Statement, such Warrants will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Company enforceable against the Company in accordance with their terms.

 

3


8. When (i) the terms of any Units (including the terms of the component Securities) and their issuance and sale have been duly authorized by all necessary corporate action of the Company and (ii) such Units have been duly executed (if the Units are represented by a separate instrument) and delivered in accordance with the applicable purchase, underwriting or other agreement, and as contemplated by the Registration Statement, such Units will constitute valid and binding obligations of the Company enforceable against the Company in accordance with their respective terms.

In rendering the opinions set forth above, we have assumed that (i) the Registration Statement will have become effective under the Securities Act, a prospectus supplement will have been prepared and filed with the Commission describing the Securities offered thereby and such Securities will have been issued and sold in accordance with the terms of such prospectus supplement; (ii) a definitive purchase, underwriting, or similar agreement, and any applicable indenture (including any supplemental indenture) or warrant agreement, pursuant to which such Securities may be issued, will have been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the Company and the other parties thereto, and the specific terms of such Securities will have been duly established in conformity with the applicable agreement and the certificate of incorporation and bylaws of the Company (if applicable); (iii) at the time of the issuance of any Securities, the Company will be a validly existing corporation under the law of its jurisdiction of incorporation; (iv) the number of shares of Common Stock or Preferred Stock, as applicable, issued pursuant to the Registration Statement, together with the number of shares outstanding or reserved at the time of issuance, will not exceed the respective number of shares authorized by the Company’s certificate of incorporation in effect at the time of such issuance; and (v) all the foregoing actions to be taken by the Company will have been taken so as not to violate any applicable law and so as to comply with any requirement or restriction imposed by any court or governmental or regulatory body having jurisdiction over the Company or any of its property.

Our opinions set forth above are subject to (a) bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium, fraudulent conveyance and similar laws affecting the rights and remedies of creditors generally and (b) general principles of equity. Our opinions are also subject to the qualification that the enforceability of provisions in any indenture (including any supplemental indenture) providing for indemnification or contribution, broadly worded waivers, waivers of rights to damages or defenses, waivers of unknown or future claims, and waivers of statutory, regulatory or constitutional rights may be limited on public policy or statutory grounds. In addition, we express no opinion with respect to the enforceability of rights to receive prepayment premiums or the unaccrued portion of original issue discount upon acceleration of any Debt Securities, in each case to the extent determined to be unreasonable or to constitute unmatured interest.

We hereby consent to the filing of this opinion letter as an exhibit to the Registration Statement and to the use of our name therein and in the related prospectus under the caption “Legal Matters.” In giving such consent, we do not thereby admit that we are in the category of persons whose consent is required under Section 7 of the Securities Act or the rules and regulations of the Commission thereunder.

 

Very truly yours,
/s/ Ropes & Gray LLP
Ropes & Gray LLP

 

4

EX-5.2

Exhibit 5.2

 

LOGO   

ROPES & GRAY LLP

PRUDENTIAL TOWER

800 BOYLSTON STREET

BOSTON, MA 02199-3600

WWW.ROPESGRAY.COM

  

March 9, 2023

Cullinan Oncology, Inc.

One Main Street, Suite 1350

Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142

Re: Registration Statement on Form S-3

Ladies and Gentlemen:

We have acted as counsel to Cullinan Oncology, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), in connection with its entry into the Sales Agreement, dated March 9, 2023, by and among the Company and SVB Securities LLC (the “Agreement”), pursuant to which the Company may issue and sell up to $125,000,000 of shares (the “Shares”) of the common stock, $0.0001 par value (the “Common Stock”), of the Company pursuant to a registration statement on Form S-3 (the “Registration Statement”), filed by the Company on the date hereof with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”) under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”).

In connection with this opinion letter, we have examined such certificates, documents and records and have made such investigation of fact and such examination of law as we have deemed appropriate in order to enable us to render the opinions set forth herein. In conducting such investigation, we have relied, without independent verification, upon certificates of officers of the Company, public officials and other appropriate persons.

The opinion expressed below is limited to the Delaware General Corporation Law.

Based upon and subject to the foregoing, we are of the opinion that when the Shares are issued out of the Company’s duly authorized Common Stock and sold in accordance with the terms of the Agreement against payment of the consideration set forth therein, the Shares will be duly authorized, validly issued, fully paid and non-assessable.

We hereby consent to your filing this opinion as an exhibit to the Registration Statement and to the use of our name therein and in the related prospectus under the caption “Legal Matters.” In giving such consent, we do not thereby admit that we are in the category of persons whose consent is required under Section 7 of the Securities Act or the rules and regulations of the Commission thereunder.

 

Very truly yours,
/s/ Ropes & Gray LLP
Ropes & Gray LLP
EX-23.1

Exhibit 23.1

 

LOGO   

KPMG LLP

Two Financial Center

60 South Street

Boston, MA 02111

  

Consent of Independent Registered Public Accounting Firm

We consent to the use of our report dated March 9, 2023, with respect to the consolidated financial statements of Cullinan Oncology, Inc., incorporated herein by reference, and to the reference to our firm under the heading “Experts” in the prospectus.

 

/s/ KPMG LLP
Boston, Massachusetts
March 9, 2023
EX-FILING FEES

Exhibit 107

Calculation of Filing Fee Tables

Form S-3

(Form Type)

Cullinan Oncology

(Exact Name of Registrant as Specified in its Charter)

Table 1: Newly Registered and Carry Forward Securities

 

                         
    

Security

Type

 

Security

Class

Title

  Fee
Calculation
or Carry
Forward
Rule
  Amount
Registered(1)
  Proposed
Maximum
Offering
Price Per
Unit(2)
 

Maximum

Aggregate

Offering Price

 

Fee

Rate

  Amount of
Registration
Fee
  Carry
Forward
Form
Type
  Carry
Forward
File
Number
  Carry
Forward
Initial
effective
date
  Filing Fee
Previously
Paid in
Connection
with Unsold
Securities to
be Carried
Forward
 
Newly Registered Securities
                         

Fees to Be

Paid

  Equity   Common Stock, par value $0.0001 per share(3)   457(o)                    
                         

Fees to Be

Paid

  Equity   Preferred Stock(4)   457(o)                    
                         

Fees to Be

Paid

  Debt   Debt Securities(5)   457(o)                    
                         

Fees to Be

Paid

  Other   Depositary Shares(6)   457(o)                    
                         

Fees to Be

Paid

  Other   Subscription Rights(7)   457(o)                    
                         

Fees to Be

Paid

  Other   Purchase Contracts(8)   457(o)                    
                         

Fees to Be

Paid

  Equity   Warrants(9)   457(o)